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Beluhan S.,University of Zagreb | Ranogajec A.,Institute Of Public Health Dr Andrija Stampar
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, total carbohydrates, and ash) and non-volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids, and 5'-nucleotides) of 10 popular Croatian wild edible mushroom species (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis, Calocybe gambosa, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Entoloma clypeatum, Flammulina velutipes, Macroleptiota procera, Morchella elata, and Pleurotus ostreatus) were determined. All investigated mushrooms were found to be good sources of proteins and total carbohydrates, with contents varying in the ranges of 27.95-38.89, and 42.62-66.78. g/100. g, respectively. In addition, the fat contents were very low 1.34-6.45. g/100. g. B. edulis (19.87. mg/g) showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids and M. elata (14.25. mg/g) the lowest concentration. Monosodium glutamate-like components and total flavour 5'-nucleotides were the highest in C. cornucopioides (45.85 and 13.88. mg/g, respectively), and lowest in F. velutipes (7.63 and 1.05. mg/g, respectively). Equivalent umami concentration values in 10 Croatian wild edible mushrooms ranged from 73.78 to 1186.45. g MSG/100. g dry weight, and overall, all these mushrooms possessed highly umami taste. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Zokalj I.,County Hospital Cakovec | Marotti M.,University of Zagreb | Kolaric B.,University of Rijeka | Kolaric B.,Institute Of Public Health Dr Andrija Stampar
International Urology and Nephrology | Year: 2014

Purpose: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the influence of different tumor enhancement measurement approaches on the ability of computed tomography (CT) to differentiate between solid forms of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), other RCC histologic subtypes and oncocytomas. Different RCC subtypes have a diverse range of malignant potential; consequently, the information about RCC subtype obtained using minimally invasive imaging method before the treatment could allow the more accurate therapy planning. Differentiation of ccRCCs from oncocytomas is important because oncocytomas are usually benign tumors which could be treated conservatively. Methods: CT images of 113 patients with 118 solid renal tumors were evaluated. The imaging protocol consisted pre-contrast and post-contrast images during the arterial and nephrographic phases. Renal tumor attenuation values were measured using region of interest covering as much of the solid enhancing tumor tissue as possible. Tumor attenuation values and tumor enhancement ratios were correlated with histologic subtype. One hundred of tumors were diagnosed as clear cell RCC, nine as non-clear cell RCC and nine as oncocytoma. Results: Tumor attenuation values of >74 HU on the arterial phase scans significantly correlated with clear cell RCC (Az 0.73). The tumor-to-aorta enhancement ratios calculated on tumor attenuation values measured on the arterial phase scans had a cutoff value of >0.29, which significantly correlated with clear cell RCC (Az 0.79). All ROC curves for differentiating the clear cell RCC from oncocytomas have area under the curve too small (0.5 or less) to have chose cutoff value with sensitivity and specificity that could be applied in clinical work. Conclusion: Enhancement measurements of renal carcinomas on CT images in the arterial phase can be used as an auxiliary method in the pretreatment differentiation of solid forms of the most frequent RCC subtypes in patients not suitable for core biopsy but who are suitable for minimally invasive treatment methods and/or targeted therapy. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

Niseteo T.,University of Zagreb | Komes D.,University of Zagreb | Belscak-Cvitanovic A.,University of Zagreb | Horzic D.,University of Zagreb | Budec M.,Institute Of Public Health Dr Andrija Stampar
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world, prepared and consumed in many different ways. Taste, aroma and composition of the coffee brew vary depending on the preparation method. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of different brewing methods on the polyphenol and methylxanthine composition and antioxidant capacity of thirteen different coffee brews. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined spectrophotometrically and the content of chlorogenic acid derivates (3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA) and caffeine using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-PDA). Antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was evaluated by using the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assays. Instant coffee brews showed the highest values in content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid derivates, caffeine and antioxidant capacity, which significantly decreased by milk addition. The antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was in compliance with the total phenol content and content of chlorogenic acid derivates. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vilibic-Cavlek T.,University of Zagreb | Kaic B.,Croatian National Institute of Public Health | Barbic L.,University of Zagreb | Pem-Novosel I.,Croatian National Institute of Public Health | And 8 more authors.
Infection | Year: 2014

Purpose: We report on first evidence of simultaneous occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) neuroinvasive infection in humans in Croatia during the transmission season 2013. Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 95 patients with clinically suspected WNV infection (WNV fever and neuroinvasive disease) were tested for WNV IgM/IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twenty-six reactive samples were further tested by virus neutralization test for confirmation. Results: WNV neuroinvasive infection was confirmed in 20 patients, while in three patients USUV neutralizing antibodies were detected. Cases occurred during the 11-week interval (from 24 July to 07 October 2013). Both WNV and USUV cases were distributed in three north-western Croatian counties. In addition to human cases, recent asymptomatic WNV infection (detection of IgM antibodies) was recorded in 9/3,460 (0.3 %) tested sentinel horses. Infected animals were recorded in two eastern and one north-western county. Conclusions: Our results indicate co-circulation of WNV and USUV in Croatia. WNV infection could be misdiagnosed with other emerging infectious diseases presenting with neurological symptoms such as USUV infection. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Matkovic Puljic V.,University of Zagreb | Matkovic Puljic V.,Institute Of Public Health Dr Andrija Stampar | Matkovic Puljic V.,National Institute of Public Health
PloS one | Year: 2014

HIV testing plays a critical role in preventing the spread of the virus and identifying infected individuals in need of care. Voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTs) not only conduct testing but they also provide counseling. Since a proportion of people who test negative for HIV on their previous visit will return for retesting, the frequency of retesting and the characteristics of those who retest may provide insights into the efficacy of testing and counseling strategies. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1,482 VCT clients in Croatia in 2010, 44.3% had been tested for HIV before. The rate of repeat HIV testing is lower in Croatia than in other countries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) clients, those with three or more sexual partners in the last 12 months, consistent condom users with steady partners, and intravenous drug users were more likely to be repeat testers. This finding suggests that clients presenting for repeat HIV testing are those who self-identify as being at a higher risk of infection. Our data showed that testing positive for HIV was not associated with repeat testing. However, the effects of repeat testing on HIV epidemiology needs to be explored.

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