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Mishra S.K.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University | Varma C.P.,Dr Ambedkar Institute Of Technology For Handicapped
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2012

The everincreasing demand of electrical and declining nature of natural resources i. e. coal, water, diesel has forced us to give a thought on renewable resources. This paper present the current scenario of various sources of generation of electrical energy and proposes tomove on renewable sources i. e. solar, wind and biomass depending on their availability on the basis of geographical location. Although the current researches give a boom on all the renewable resources but the solar resource is available in rich scale. The efficiency of solar cells is about 12-18 per cent but the use of multijunction cells will give 42-45 per cent efficiency and will be best solution for deloading the grid in coming years. © Research India Publications.


Singh D.P.,Dr Ambedkar Institute Of Technology For Handicapped | Trivedi R.K.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2012

Bioethanol is the most common biofuel, accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. There is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources due to increase in industrial development. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Conventional production is a well known process based on enzymatic conversion of starchy biomass into sugars, and/or fermentation of 6-carbon sugars with final distillation of ethanol to fuel grade. Ethanol can be produced from many feedstock's, including cereal crops, corn (maize), sugar cane, sugar beets, potatoes, sorghum, and cassava. Co products (e.g animal feed) help to reduce the production cost. If sugar cane is used, conversion into sugar is easier. Crushed stalk (bagasse) can be used to provide heat and power for the process and for other energy applications. Ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel. Bioethanol represents an important, renewable liquid fuel for motor vehicles. Production of bioethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both the consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Conversion technologies for producing ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially. In order to produce bioethanol from cellulosic biomass, a pretreatment process is used to reduce the sample size, break down the hemicelluloses to sugars, and open up the structure of the cellulose component. The cellulose portion is hydrolyzed by acids or enzymes into glucose sugar that is fermented in to bioethanol. The sugars from the hemicelluloses are also fermented to bioethanol. Hence ethanol is fermented from sugars, starches or from cellulosic biomass. The use of bioethanol as a motor fuel has as long a history as the car itself. It began with the use of ethanol in the intimae combustion engine. © Research India Publications.


Singh D.P.,Dr Ambedkar Institute Of Technology For Handicapped | Trivedi R.K.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2013

Ethanol obtained from biomass has potential to become an important sustainable transportation fuel in the near future. Renewable energy sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, are environmentally friendly because they emit less pollution without contributing net carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Among kinds of biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is a very useful feedstock to economically produce environmentally friendly biofuels. The main goal of the research described in this paper is to investigate the process of pretreated biomass, effect of inhibitors and ethanol fermentation as an efficient bio fuel source for the society, as well as to examine whether it is used and beneficial for the society, which helps to control the global warming. Processing of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol consists of four major operations: (a) Pretreatment (b) Acid or enzymatic hydrolysis (c) Fermentation and (d) Ethanol separation/purification. In this paper alkali and acid method of pretereatment was used to examine their effect on ethanol production. Effective parameters such as pH, Nutrient media and sugar concentration also effected the enzymatic growth and production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses. Production of ethanol from agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, energy crops, and other forms of lignocellulosic biomass could improve energy security, reduce trade deficits, decrease urban air pollution, and contribute little, if any, net carbon dioxide accumulation to the atmosphere. The use of production of ethanol is more beneficial and economical because most of the lignocellulosic agricultural wastes are converted in to ethanol as biofuel in urban areas. Biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic and social benefits to the communities in India, but modification in process and car engine should be needed. Bioethanol is also made from different Algal biomass in the terms of third generation of biofuel. In fact, not only are they environmentally friendly, but they have also been shown to get just as good of gas mileage as petroleum based fuels. It will eventually totally replace petroleum fuels, but that remains to be seen. Ethanol is made from agricultural wastes is less polluting than diesel and oil based fuels, and gets better gas mileage than many of the alternatives.


Chandra A.G.,Dr Ambedkar Institute Of Technology For Handicapped
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

The consumption of natural resources available on earth is increasing heavily day by day, by the human beings due to rapid urbanization, luxury living trends, industrialization and several other similar activities. While their consumption the human kind is less attentive and feels free without giving a thought to make the same available for future generations. Water as a natural and finite source is one of the most essential issues to be discussed and pondered over in the present scenario globally. It plays an important role as a basic element for energy formation, climatic conditions and daily routine activities i.e. agriculture production, drinking, cooking and cleaning etc. Its limited quantity with required quality forces us to make a sustainable use of it. By adopting different water management practices, latest techniques and concepts for water sustainability, the mankind would lead a quality life today without any adverse affect on the universe and at the same time preserving the equal rights and opportunities for future generations, Hence prudent use of water as a natural resource is a must and need of the hour. © Research India Publications.


Misra S.K.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University | Misra S.K.,Dr Ambedkar Institute Of Technology For Handicapped | Prakash Varma C.,Uttar Pradesh Technical University | Prakash Varma C.,Dr Ambedkar Institute Of Technology For Handicapped | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2012

Currently, the best lab examples of traditional silicon solar cells have efficiencies around 25%, while lab examples of multi-junction cells have demonstrated performance over 43%. Commercial examples of tandem cells are widely available at 30% under one-sun illumination, and improve to around 40% under concentrated sunlight and this CPV can be utilized for power generation. However, this efficiency is gained at the cost of increased complexity and manufacturing price. © Research India Publications.

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