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Cetin B.,Cumhuriyet University | Gumusay O.,Gaziosmanpasa University | Cengiz M.,Dr Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Training And Research Hospital | Ozet A.,Gazi University
Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, and its prognosis remains poor with a median overall survival of 12 months for advanced disease. Advances in the understanding of molecular genetics have led to the development of directed molecular targeted therapy in gastric cancer, leading to improve patient outcomes and quality of life. Discussion: In the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive gastric cancer, the addition of trastuzumab significantly improves survival in the first-line setting of therapy. Ramucirumab, an antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, significantly improved progression-free and overall survival and has been approved for second-line treatment of gastric cancer. Anti-mesenchymal-epithelial transition (c-MET), mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors are under investigation as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of gastric cancer. The novel therapies target the key immune checkpoint interaction between a T cell co-inhibitory receptor called programmed death 1 (PD-1) and one of its immunosuppressive ligands, PD-L1. This article reviews molecular targeted therapies in gastric cancer, in light of recent advances. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Gumusay O.,Gazi University | Benekli M.,Gazi University | Ekinci O.,Gazi University | Baykara M.,Sakarya Education and Research Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Objective: Determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status in advanced gastric cancer is important in clinical decision making. In the trastuzumab for GC trial, trastuzumab-based therapy demonstrated a significant overall survival benefit in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive advanced gastric cancer. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 discordance in gastric cancer primary and its metastases has been long debated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 discordance and its effect on treatment decisions in advanced gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 74 patients with advanced gastric cancer were included in the study. Both immunohistochemical staining and dual-color silver in situ hybridization were performed in all patients to evaluate the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status of the primary lesion and paired metastasis. Results: The assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status with the immunohistochemical staining method and dual-color silver in situ hybridization revealed a discordance rate of 9.5 and 16.2%, respectively. However, this discordance was clinically meaningful in only one patient leading to a change in treatment decision. While this patient had a human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative status in primary tumor (immunohistochemical = 0, dual-color silver in situ hybridization = negative), the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status was positive for liver metastasis (immunohistochemical = 2+, dual-color silver in situ hybridization = positive). Trastuzumab was added to the chemotherapy regimen. Conclusions: In this study, we found a higher rate of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 discordance between primary gastric tumor and metastatic lesions compared with the rates reported in previous studies. Detection of a human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive metastasis with a human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative primary tumor suggests that investigation of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 is also required for the metastatic lesion and that trastuzumab could be administered in the case of a positive result. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Yildiz B.K.,Yozgat State Hospital | Demirci U.,Dr Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Training And Research Hospital | Baykara M.,Sakarya University | Buyukberber S.,Gazi University | And 2 more authors.
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2015

Purpose. To evaluate the morphological and functional short-term effects of systemic bevacizumab on healthy eyes of cancer patients morphologically and functionally. Methods. The patients who underwent a chemotherapy regimen because of colon, lung, and breast cancer at the Department of Medical Oncology of the Gazi University School of Medicine between years 2010 and 2012 were included. All patients were administrated intravenous bevacizumab in three different dosages (5, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg per day) at 2- or 3-week intervals and a total of 6 to 18 courses in addition to regimens based on 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. After baseline ophthalmologic examination, patients were examined after the first course of chemotherapy and at the end of the protocol. Ophthalmologic evaluations included best-corrected visual acuity, color vision assessment, and ocular examinations with optical coherence tomography. Results. Thirty-four eyes of 17 patients were enrolled. The mean (TSD) age of the patients was 53.64 (T11.09) years and median follow-up time was 9 months (range, 4 to 18 months). Seventy-six percent of the patients were diagnosed as having colon cancer and no significant change was identified in functional assessments such as best-corrected visual acuity or color vision or in morphological examinations with optical coherence tomography (central foveal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters). Patients were divided into three groups based on the dosage of systemic bevacizumab infusions, and correlation between time-dependent changes in central foveal thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and bevacizumab dosage was investigated and no significant correlation was detected. Conclusions. Repeated doses of systemic bevacizumab did not cause a deleterious effect on healthy eyes of cancer patients clinically, but further studies including histologic and biochemical analysis need to be conducted to reveal possible adverse effects. (Optom Vis Sci 2015;92:102Y106). Copyright © American Academy of Optometry. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Optometry. Source


Gumusay O.,Gazi University | Cetin B.,Van Education and Research Hospital | Ozet A.,Gazi University | Demirci U.,Dr Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Training And Research Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Journal of B.U.ON. | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologkal features of patients with grade III glial tumors associated with recurrence after treatment. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out on 67 patients with grade III glial tumors between May 2007 and June 2013. Data were retrieved from patient electronic medical records and paper charts. Results: The patient median age was 43 years (range 19-70). Of these, 50.7% (N=34) had anaplastic astrocytoma, 29.9% (N=20) anaplastic oligoastrocytoma and 19.4% (N=13) anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Among these 67 patients, 41 (61.2%) developed local recurrence. Fifty seven of them (80.6%) received radiotherapy (RT) with concomitant temozolomide. Of these patients, 14 (20.9%) received RT with concomitant temozolomide alone, and 43 (64.2%) were treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Time to recurrence (TTR) of patients who received adjuvant temozolomide after concomitant chemoradiation (TTR=14 months, 95% CI 9.3-22.7) as initial treatment for grade III glial tumors was not superior to RT with concomitant temozolomide alone (TTR=21 months, 95% CI 14.8-35.2; p=0.224) In multivariate analysis, histologic subtype (p=0.015), age (p=0.019) and presence of neurologic symptoms (p=0.021) were independent predictive factors of recurrence. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrated that histologic subtype, age and presence of neurologic symptoms were significantly associated with recurrence in patients with grade III glial tumors. Adjuvant temozolomide was not significantly associated with recurrence in patients with grade III glial tumors. The identification of these predictors may be important for the patient follow-up and better treatment modifications. Source


Unal O.U.,Ataturk University | Oztop I.,Dokuz Eylul University | Yazici O.,Numune Training and Research Hospital | Ozatli T.,Dr Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Training And Research Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Oncology Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

Background: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC), and the effectiveness and toxicity of first-line platinum/taxane combination therapy. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 79 patients with PPC, who were treated and followed up between December 2001 and August 2012 at 10 medical oncology clinics. Results: All patients were female, with a median age of 63 years (range 34-79 years). Histopathological diagnoses included primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC) (n = 69) and mixed epithelial carcinoma of the peritoneum (MEC) (n = 10). Patients received first-line treatment with carboplatin/paclitaxel (n = 67) or cisplatin/paclitaxel (n = 12) combination therapy. Overall response rate, median progression-free survival, and median survival time in the paclitaxel/ carboplatin group and the paclitaxel/cisplatin group were 74.6 vs. 75%, 15.6 vs. 37.8 months, and 41 vs. 70.3 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, favorable prognostic factors were: ECOG performance status 0 (p < 0.001) and optimal cytoreduction (p = 0.03). Conclusion: PPC is a rare, heterogeneous disease. ECOG performance status and optimal cytoreduction are important prognostic factors regarding survival rates. Platinum/taxane combination therapy is an effective and tolerable regimen in this patient group. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Source

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