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Thiaroye, Senegal

de Carvalho M.A.,IFES | Ruiz H.A.,CCA | da Costa L.M.,DPS Inc | Passos R.R.,DPV | Araujo C.A.S.,IF Sertao PE
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2014

Cerrado’s Oxisols present, frequently, balanced distribution of aggregate size. However, when cultivated, may change with negative consequences for agricultural production. With the aim of studying the particle size distribution, density and porosity of aggregates of different sizes, samples were taken under two soil covers (cerrado vegetation and another area under maize crop for thirty years) in two depths (0-5 and 5-10 cm). The studied factors were the vegetal cover and five aggregate classes (2.0-1.0, 1.0-0.5, 0.5-0.25, 0.25-0.105 and < 0.105 mm), separated by the dry sieving method. In these materials the proportion, particle size distribution and density of the aggregates by the method of cement powder were determined, calculating the porosity intra-aggregate. The cerrado samples showed geometric mean diameter greater than those sampled in soil cultivated with maize. Considering the aggregate class, the smaller size of the aggregate resulted in greater proportion of clays, lower aggregate density and higher intra-aggregate porosity due to exclusion of sand with a size larger than the aggregates of the class in study. © 2014, Departamento de Engenharia Agricola - UFCG/Cnpq. All rights reserved. Source

Vayssieres J.-F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vayssieres J.-F.,Biol Control Unit Afr | Sinzogan A.,University Abomey Calavi | Adandonon A.,University of Benin | And 22 more authors.
Fruits | Year: 2014

Introduction: Losses in West African commercial mango orchards due to fruit fly infestations have exceeded 50% by the middle of the crop season since 2005, resulting in considerable income loss for the growers. Materials and methods: In 2009, weekly monitoring of adult fruit fly species of economic significance was carried out in eight West African countries at 12 sites across five agro-ecological zones: (i) Humid Forest, (ii) Guinean savanna, (iii) Southern Sudan, (iv) Northern Sudan, and (v) Sahelian. Trapping was performed using methyl eugenol and terpinyl acetate in 288 Tephri-traps, targeting Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis cosyra. Results: The data showed that B. invadens was present throughout the year in the Forest zone, abundant for 7 months, with a peak in May at the end of the mango season, C. cosyra being totally absent. In the Guinean savanna zone, B. invadens was abundant for 6-7 months, with a peak at the beginning of June coinciding with the season, with a few C. cosyra. In the Southern Sudan zone, B. invadens was abundant for 6 months, with a peak in mid-June during the season, C. cosyra peaking in April. In the Northern Sudan zone, B. invadens was abundant for 5 months, with a peak at the end of June at the end of the season, C. cosyra peaking in May. In the Sahelian zone, B. invadens was abundant for 4 months, peaking in August during the season, C. cosyra peaking just before. These preliminary results showed that the exotic species, B. invadens, was present at high levels [mean peak of 378 flies per trap per day (FTD)] in all agro-ecological zones, while the native species, C. cosyra, preferred the drier zones of West Africa, with lower population levels (mean peak of 77 FTD). Conclusion: Detection trapping of male flies with parapheromones is a useful indicator of field population levels and could be used to deploy control measures (IPM package) in a timely manner when the Economic Injury Level is reached. Control strategies for these quarantine mango fruit fly species are discussed with respect to agro-ecological zones and the phenological stages of the mango tree. © 2014 Cirad/EDP Sciences. Source

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