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Aggett P.J.,Lancaster University | Hathcock J.,Council for Responsible Nutrition | Jukes D.,University of Reading | Richardson D.P.,University of Reading | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Codex documents may be used as educational and consensus materials for member governments. Also, the WTO SPS Agreement recognizes Codex as the presumptive international authority on food issues. Nutrient bioavailability is a critical factor in determining the ability of nutrients to provide beneficial effects. Bioavailability also influences the quantitative dietary requirements that are the basis of nutrient intake recommendations and NRVs. Health claims: Codex, EFSA and some national regulatory authorities have established guidelines or regulations that will permit several types of health claims. The scientific basis for claims has been established by the US FDA and EFSA, but not yet by Codex. Evidence-based nutrition differs from evidence-based medicine, but the differences are only recently gaining recognition. Health claims on foods may provide useful information to consumers, but many will interpret the information to mean that they can rely upon the food or nutrient to eliminate a disease risk. Nutrient reference values: NRVs are designed to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the nutritive values of foods, helping to illustrate how specific foods fit into the overall diet. The INL-98 and the mean of adult male and female values provide NRVs that are sufficient when used as targets for individual intakes by most adults. World Trade Organization agreements: WTO recognizes Codex as the primary international authority on food issues. Current regulatory schemes based on recommended dietary allowances are trade restrictive. A substantial number of decisions by the EFSA could lead to violation of WTO agreements. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Biesalski H.K.,University of Hohenheim | Aggett P.J.,Lancaster University | Anton R.,University of Strasbourg | Bernstein P.S.,University of Utah | And 10 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2011

Objective: The objective was to define the term evidence based nutrition on the basis of expert discussions and scientific evidence. Methods and procedures: The method used is the established Hohenheim Consensus Conference. The term "Hohenheim Consensus Conference" defines conferences dealing with nutrition-related topics. The major aim of the conference is to review the state of the art of a given topic with experts from different areas (basic science, clinicians, epidemiologists, etc.). Based on eight to 12 questions, the experts discuss short answers and try to come to a consensus. A scientifically based text is formulated that justifies the consensus answer. To discuss the requirements for the scientific substantiation of claims, the 26th Hohenheim Consensus Conference gathered the views of many academic experts in the field of nutritional research and asked these experts to address the various aspects of a claims substantiation process and the possibilities and limitations of the different approaches. Results: The experts spent a day presenting and discussing their views and arrived at several consensus statements that can serve as guidance for bodies performing claims assessments in the framework of regulatory systems. Conclusion: The 26th Hohenheim Consensus Conference addresses some general aspects and describes the current scientific status from the point of view of six case studies to illustrate specific areas of scientific interest: carotenoids and vitamin A in relation to age-related macular degeneration, the quality of carbohydrates (as expressed by the glycemic index) in relation to health and well-being, probiotics in relation to intestinal and immune functions, micronutrient intake and maintenance of normal body functions, and food components with antioxidative properties and health benefits. © 2011.


Lupton J.R.,Texas A&M University | Atkinson S.A.,McMaster University | Chang N.,Ewha Womans University | Fraga C.G.,University of Buenos Aires | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Bioactives can be defined as: "Constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status" (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Public Health and Science, Department of Health and Human Services in Fed Reg 69:55821-55822, 2004). Although traditional nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, protein, essential fatty acids and essential amino acids, have dietary reference intake (DRI) values, there is no such evaluative process for bioactives. For certain classes of bioactives, substantial scientific evidence exists to validate a relationship between their intake and enhanced health conditions or reduced risk of disease. In addition, the study of bioactives and their relationship to disease risk is a growing area of research supported by government, academic institutions, and food and supplement manufacturers. Importantly, consumers are purchasing foods containing bioactives, yet there is no evaluative process in place to let the public know how strong the science is behind the benefits or the quantitative amounts needed to achieve these beneficial health effects. This conference, Bioactives: Qualitative Nutrient Reference Values for Life-stage Groups?, explored why it is important to have a DRI-like process for bioactives and challenges for establishing such a process. © The Author(s) 2014.


Gallagher A.M.,University of Ulster | Meijer G.W.,Unilever | Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd | Rondeau V.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Diet is well known to have beneficial health properties that extend beyond traditionally accepted nutritional effects. The approach involved in elucidating these beneficial physiological effects is becoming more important, as reflected by increasing research being undertaken. With growing consumer awareness of foods and food constituents and their relationship to health, the key questions for regulators, scientists and the food industry continue to relate to: (1) how consumers could be protected and have confidence that the health claims on foods are well supported by the evidence; (2) how research on physiological effects of food (constituents) and their health benefits could be stimulated and supported; (3) how research findings could be used in the development of innovative new food products. The objectives of this paper are to provide a set of recommendations on the substantiation of health claims for foods, to develop further guidance on the choice of validated markers (or marker patterns) and what effects are considered to be beneficial to the health of the general public (or specific target groups). Finally, the case for developing a standardised approach for assessing the totality of the available scientific data and weighing the evidence is proposed. © 2011 ILSI Europe.


Mitchell H.L.,Cot | Aggett P.J.,Lancaster University | Richardson D.P.,DPRNutrition Ltd | Stowell J.D.,Danisco
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The present report summarises a meeting held by the Food & Health Forum at the Royal Society of Medicine, London, on 27 May 2010. The objective of the meeting was to review the problems associated with the use of evidence-based nutrition and to discuss what constitutes the efficacy for foods and food constituents and how the strength and consistency of the evidence can be assessed and adapted to circumstances in which health claims are to be used on food products. The meeting highlighted the limitations with the present evidence-based nutrition models with the prospect that this may have long-term consequences for nutrition science and ultimately the consumer who may not benefit from new science that could have an impact on health. © 2010 The Authors.


Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd | Eggersdorfer M.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Summary: For authorisation of a health claim in Europe, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier, as well as the guidance in the European Food Safety Authority's opinions on the scientific requirements for health claims. In addition to the authorised functional benefits of the vitamins and minerals, certain foods and food constituents offer beneficial physiological effects that extend beyond traditionally accepted nutritional effects. The elucidation of these effects is becoming more important, as reflected by the increasing amount of nutrition research and number of product innovations. Provided that they are scientifically substantiated, health claims linked to food and food supplement products can help consumers make well-informed food choices. The present review focuses on scientific substantiation and consumer understanding of health claims, and it aims to help those involved in academic research, food product development and consumer education about food and health. © 2014 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2012

In Europe, for authorisation of a health claim, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier set out by the European Food Safety Authority. The Functional Foods in Europe (FUFOSE) and Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods (PASSCLAIM) projects underpinned the laws and provided criteria against which the quality of the totality of the available data could be judged. Whereas the regulations and PASSCLAIM require an assessment of the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between a food category, a food or constituent and a health benefit, the European Food Safety Authority requires conclusive evidence of cause and effect. This latter standard of proof and a focus on randomised controlled trials done on isolated components and using validated physiological biomarkers may not always be appropriate to assess nutrition science. The aims of this paper are to address the strengths and weaknesses of different sources of evidence that contribute to the totality of the available data, to undertake a critical examination of the application of a drug-like assessment model in evidence-based nutrition and to encourage research on new biomarkers of health and homeostatic adaptability. There is a need for (a) a robust and pragmatic scientific framework for assessing the strength, consistency and biological plausibility of the evidence, and (b) consumer understanding research on claims that use qualifying language and/or graphics to reflect the weight of evidence. Such scientific, policy and communication approaches are proportionate and could help stimulate academic research, promote fair trade and product innovation and contribute to consumer education about food and health. © 2011 The Author.


Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech | Year: 2012

Suboptimal intakes and multiple nutrient deficiencies of micronutrients are common in many countries. The importance of appropriate nutrition interventions to improve child health and development and good nutrition in utero has far-reaching implications for a nation's economic development and the chance for people to prosper. A key objective of this review is to highlight the potential role of food supplements in supporting a varied and balanced diet and to help improve the nutritional status of populations around the world.


PubMed | DPR Nutrition Ltd
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2012

In Europe, for authorisation of a health claim, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier set out by the European Food Safety Authority. The Functional Foods in Europe (FUFOSE) and Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods (PASSCLAIM) projects underpinned the laws and provided criteria against which the quality of the totality of the available data could be judged. Whereas the regulations and PASSCLAIM require an assessment of the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between a food category, a food or constituent and a health benefit, the European Food Safety Authority requires conclusive evidence of cause and effect. This latter standard of proof and a focus on randomised controlled trials done on isolated components and using validated physiological biomarkers may not always be appropriate to assess nutrition science. The aims of this paper are to address the strengths and weaknesses of different sources of evidence that contribute to the totality of the available data, to undertake a critical examination of the application of a drug-like assessment model in evidence-based nutrition and to encourage research on new biomarkers of health and homeostatic adaptability. There is a need for (a) a robust and pragmatic scientific framework for assessing the strength, consistency and biological plausibility of the evidence, and (b) consumer understanding research on claims that use qualifying language and/or graphics to reflect the weight of evidence. Such scientific, policy and communication approaches are proportionate and could help stimulate academic research, promote fair trade and product innovation and contribute to consumer education about food and health.


PubMed | DPR Nutrition Ltd and Northumbria University
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

This study aimed to assess the whole grain (WG) content of foods consumed in the UK which include ingredients that retain all three structural components of the grain, and contained 10% WG. Dietary data from seven studies with 10,474 UK subjects were examined for foods containing WG. The WG content was then determined from ingredient lists, manufacturers information and recipes. 372 food descriptors from nine food groups (4.4% of all food codes) contained 10% WG. Of these 372 foods, 31.5% contained 51%, 30.6% 25-50%, and 37.9% 10-24% WG dry matter as eaten. The relatively small number of WG foods identified in the total number of foods consumed confirms the low contribution of WG foods to the overall pattern of foods consumed in the UK. Since foods containing <51% WG accounted for the majority of WG food codes identified, recognising the importance of these foods to WG intake is essential.

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