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Aggett P.J.,Lancaster University | Hathcock J.,Council for Responsible Nutrition | Jukes D.,University of Reading | Richardson D.P.,University of Reading | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Codex documents may be used as educational and consensus materials for member governments. Also, the WTO SPS Agreement recognizes Codex as the presumptive international authority on food issues. Nutrient bioavailability is a critical factor in determining the ability of nutrients to provide beneficial effects. Bioavailability also influences the quantitative dietary requirements that are the basis of nutrient intake recommendations and NRVs. Health claims: Codex, EFSA and some national regulatory authorities have established guidelines or regulations that will permit several types of health claims. The scientific basis for claims has been established by the US FDA and EFSA, but not yet by Codex. Evidence-based nutrition differs from evidence-based medicine, but the differences are only recently gaining recognition. Health claims on foods may provide useful information to consumers, but many will interpret the information to mean that they can rely upon the food or nutrient to eliminate a disease risk. Nutrient reference values: NRVs are designed to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the nutritive values of foods, helping to illustrate how specific foods fit into the overall diet. The INL-98 and the mean of adult male and female values provide NRVs that are sufficient when used as targets for individual intakes by most adults. World Trade Organization agreements: WTO recognizes Codex as the primary international authority on food issues. Current regulatory schemes based on recommended dietary allowances are trade restrictive. A substantial number of decisions by the EFSA could lead to violation of WTO agreements. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2012

In Europe, for authorisation of a health claim, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier set out by the European Food Safety Authority. The Functional Foods in Europe (FUFOSE) and Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods (PASSCLAIM) projects underpinned the laws and provided criteria against which the quality of the totality of the available data could be judged. Whereas the regulations and PASSCLAIM require an assessment of the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between a food category, a food or constituent and a health benefit, the European Food Safety Authority requires conclusive evidence of cause and effect. This latter standard of proof and a focus on randomised controlled trials done on isolated components and using validated physiological biomarkers may not always be appropriate to assess nutrition science. The aims of this paper are to address the strengths and weaknesses of different sources of evidence that contribute to the totality of the available data, to undertake a critical examination of the application of a drug-like assessment model in evidence-based nutrition and to encourage research on new biomarkers of health and homeostatic adaptability. There is a need for (a) a robust and pragmatic scientific framework for assessing the strength, consistency and biological plausibility of the evidence, and (b) consumer understanding research on claims that use qualifying language and/or graphics to reflect the weight of evidence. Such scientific, policy and communication approaches are proportionate and could help stimulate academic research, promote fair trade and product innovation and contribute to consumer education about food and health. © 2011 The Author. Source

Gallagher A.M.,University of Ulster | Meijer G.W.,Unilever | Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd. | Rondeau V.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Diet is well known to have beneficial health properties that extend beyond traditionally accepted nutritional effects. The approach involved in elucidating these beneficial physiological effects is becoming more important, as reflected by increasing research being undertaken. With growing consumer awareness of foods and food constituents and their relationship to health, the key questions for regulators, scientists and the food industry continue to relate to: (1) how consumers could be protected and have confidence that the health claims on foods are well supported by the evidence; (2) how research on physiological effects of food (constituents) and their health benefits could be stimulated and supported; (3) how research findings could be used in the development of innovative new food products. The objectives of this paper are to provide a set of recommendations on the substantiation of health claims for foods, to develop further guidance on the choice of validated markers (or marker patterns) and what effects are considered to be beneficial to the health of the general public (or specific target groups). Finally, the case for developing a standardised approach for assessing the totality of the available scientific data and weighing the evidence is proposed. © 2011 ILSI Europe. Source

Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd. | Eggersdorfer M.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Summary: For authorisation of a health claim in Europe, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier, as well as the guidance in the European Food Safety Authority's opinions on the scientific requirements for health claims. In addition to the authorised functional benefits of the vitamins and minerals, certain foods and food constituents offer beneficial physiological effects that extend beyond traditionally accepted nutritional effects. The elucidation of these effects is becoming more important, as reflected by the increasing amount of nutrition research and number of product innovations. Provided that they are scientifically substantiated, health claims linked to food and food supplement products can help consumers make well-informed food choices. The present review focuses on scientific substantiation and consumer understanding of health claims, and it aims to help those involved in academic research, food product development and consumer education about food and health. © 2014 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source

Richardson D.P.,DPR Nutrition Ltd.
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech | Year: 2012

Suboptimal intakes and multiple nutrient deficiencies of micronutrients are common in many countries. The importance of appropriate nutrition interventions to improve child health and development and good nutrition in utero has far-reaching implications for a nation's economic development and the chance for people to prosper. A key objective of this review is to highlight the potential role of food supplements in supporting a varied and balanced diet and to help improve the nutritional status of populations around the world. Source

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