Downing St.

Cambridge, United Kingdom

Downing St.

Cambridge, United Kingdom
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News Article | December 10, 2016

Theresa May has been challenged by a former chairman of the BBC to stand apart from her predecessors by resisting Rupert Murdoch’s £11.2bn takeover of satellite broadcaster Sky. Sir Michael Lyons said that the government should apply the “fit and proper person” test to the proposed deal, which would see Murdoch’s 21st Century Fox film and television group take full control of the broadcaster, of which it already owns 39%. The media tycoon was forced to abandon an attempt to take full control in 2011 amid a public outcry over his businesses’ journalistic practices in the wake of the phone-hacking scandal. The cross-party culture, media and sport select committee also concluded at the time that he was “not a fit person” to exercise stewardship of a major international company. Lyons chaired the BBC Trust from 2007 to 2011, during which he engaged in a war of words with James Murdoch over media ownership. He told the Observer: “This is an interesting moment for Mrs May. Is she really interested in a different type of future for this country? If so, she should do anything in her power to resist the further growth in the Murdochs’ grip on news and media. I recognise options are limited, but that doesn’t mean we should stay silent or ignore the fitness test.” The shadow culture, media and sport secretary, Tom Watson, also said that the prime minister needed to come clean on what discussions took place with Murdoch during a meeting she held with him in September. Watson, who played a key role in exposing criminality within Murdoch newspapers, said: “Now that 21st Century Fox has made a bid for Sky it is imperative that Theresa May confirms or denies whether the possibility of a bid being made was discussed at the meeting she had with Rupert Murdoch during her flying visit to New York in September.” On Friday, Murdoch’s 21st Century Fox said it had struck a preliminary deal to buy the 61% of Sky it does not already own. Culture secretary Karen Bradley has 10 days to decide whether to issue a public interest intervention notice. She must specify what issues, if any, are raised by the transaction in order for Ofcom to launch an initial investigation. These concerns could include concentration of media power and whether there needs to be a “fit and proper” test to determine whether Fox is committed to standards, such as accuracy and impartial news coverage. In 2011, the Murdoch bid for Sky resulted in a deal to spin off Sky News into a separate company from his newspapers. News Corp is a separate entitiy from Fox, which means the bidding firm no longer owns UK newspapers. However the former business secretary Vince Cable, who referred the 2011 deal to the competition authorities before Murdoch withdrew his interest, claimed the concerns now were the same as they were five years ago. He said: “This is yet again a threat to media plurality, choice, just as it was six years ago when I referred this to the competition authorities and it should be investigated. The ownership of the media, whether you’re looking at press, radio, television is very highly concentrated and this makes it even more concentrated.” The former Labour leader Ed Miliband also said the government’s next move on the deal would be an indication of whether May was truly committed to standing up to the powerful, as she had claimed in her first address from Downing Street. He said on Twitter: “Do we want Rupert Murdoch controlling even more of media landscape? No. Government must refer bid for Sky to CMA/Ofcom. On Downing St. steps you said you would stand up to the powerful. No better test than Murdoch bid for Sky. Over to you?” Owning Sky would give Fox, whose cable networks include Fox News and FX, control of a pay-TV network spanning 22 million households in Britain, Ireland, Austria, Germany and Italy. Analysts have raised the possibility of an EU investigation into foreign ownership.

PubMed | City University London, University of Sussex, University of Melbourne and Downing St.
Type: | Journal: Vision research | Year: 2017

The ability to recognize faces varies considerably between individuals, but does performance co-vary for tests of different aspects of face processing? For 397 participants (of whom the majority were university students) we obtained scores on the Mooney Face Test, Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT), Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Composite Face Test. Overall performance was significantly correlated for each pair of tests, and we suggest the term f for the factor underlying this pattern of positive correlations. However, there were large variations in the amount of variance shared by individual tests: The GFMT and CFMT are strongly related, whereas the GFMT and the Mooney test tap largely independent abilities. We do not replicate a frequently reported relationship between holistic processing (from the Composite test) and face recognition (from the CFMT)-indeed, holistic processing does not correlate with any of our tests. We report associations of performance with digit ratio and autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), and from our genome-wide association study we include a list of suggestive genetic associations with performance on the four face tests, as well as with f.

Danilova M.V.,RAS Pavlov Institute of Physiology | Mollon J.D.,Downing St.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2014

Under conditions of adaptation to a steady neutral field (metameric to Daylight Illuminant D65), forced-choice thresholds for color discrimination were measured for brief targets presented to the human fovea. Measurements were made along -45° and ?45° lines in a MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity space scaled so that the locus of unique yellow and unique blue lay at ?45°. The lines were symmetrical relative to the tritan line passing through the chromaticity of D65. Thresholds increased with distance of the probe chromaticity from D65. Thresholds were higher for saturation discrimination than for hue discrimination. A region of enhanced discrimination was found for thresholds measured orthogonally to the locus of unique blue and unique yellow. There may be an analogous enhancement near the loci of unique red and unique green. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Danilova M.V.,RAS Pavlov Institute of Physiology | Mollon J.D.,Downing St.
Vision Research | Year: 2012

Human color vision depends on the relative rates at which photons are absorbed by the three classes of retinal cone cell. The ratios of these cone absorptions can be represented in a continuous two-dimensional space, but human perception imposes discrete hue categories on this space. We ask whether discrimination is enhanced at the boundary between color categories, as it is at the boundary between speech sounds. Measuring foveal color discrimination under neutral conditions of adaptation, we find a region of enhanced discrimination in color space that corresponds approximately to the subjective category boundary between reddish and greenish hues. We suggest that these chromaticities are ones at which an opponent neural channel is in equilibrium. This channel would be 'non-cardinal', in that its signals would not correspond to either axis of the MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity diagram. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Danilova M.V.,RAS Pavlov Institute of Physiology | Chan C.H.,Downing St. | Mollon J.D.,Downing St.
Vision Research | Year: 2013

We measured spatial resolution in the parafovea for targets designed to isolate either the long-wavelength (L) or the middle-wavelength (M) cones. Landolt C optotypes were presented for 100. ms on a calibrated monitor at an eccentricity of 5° to the left or right of fixation. There were large individual differences in the ratio of the resolution obtained with L targets to that obtained with M targets, and we suggest that these differences reflect variations in the relative sampling densities of L and M cones in the parafovea. In Experiment 1, we measured contrast thresholds for targets of varying size. Among 10 unselected observers, there was a threefold variation in the ratio of the contrast thresholds for the smallest targets. In Experiments 2 and 3, we held contrast constant and we varied size, in order to establish the minimal target that could be discriminated for each of the two classes of cone. In Experiment 2, two groups of observers, selected on the basis of their settings on a flicker-photometric test, showed a highly significant difference in the ratio of the M and L acuities on the spatial task. In Experiment 3, female carriers of protan or deutan deficiencies, classified only on the basis of their sons' phenotypes, also showed a large difference in the ratio of their acuities for M and L targets. In all three experiments, there was a strong correlation between the ratio of M and L spatial acuities and a flicker-photometric measure of relative sensitivity to long- and middle-wavelength light. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Repiso A.,Downing St | Repiso A.,University of Barcelona | Saavedra P.,Downing St | Casal J.,Downing St | Lawrence P.A.,Downing St
Development | Year: 2010

The larval ventral belts of Drosophila consist of six to seven rows of denticles that are oriented, some pointing forwards, some backwards. We present evidence that denticle orientation is determined almost entirely by Dachsous and Fat, one of two planar cell polarity systems. If we change the distribution of Dachsous we can alter the polarity of denticles. We suggest that the orientation of the individual denticle rows, in both the anterior compartment (which mostly point backwards) and the posterior compartment (which point forwards), is determined by the opposing slopes of a Dachsous/Fat gradient. We show, by altering the concentration gradients of Dachsous during development, that we can change the polarity of the denticles made by larval cells as they progress between the first and third larval instars without mitosis.

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