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Macquarie Park, Australia

Wilsher M.J.,Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology
Pathology International | Year: 2011

Within the gastrointestinal tract, osseous metaplasia is an extremely rare phenomenon. It has only recently been described within a traditional serrated adenoma. Serrated colorectal carcinoma is the end point of the serrated neoplasia pathway. Left sided lesions typically arise from traditional serrated adenomas and represent only 8% of colorectal carcinomas. Herein reported is a case of colorectal adenocarcinoma arising from a traditional serrated adenoma with the rare occurrence of osseous metaplasia within the adenoma. The significance of the finding is discussed. © 2011 The Author. Pathology International © 2011 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Xu Y.,University of New South Wales | Bonar F.,Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology | Murrell G.A.C.,University of New South Wales
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to determine whether there are more nerves in tendinopathic human tendon, and if so, where are they located. Tendon biopsies were collected from normal, tendinopathic, and torn human rotator cuff tendons and then analyzed using immunohistochemistry and antibodies against a general nerve marker (protein gene product 9.5, PGP9.5), a nerve regeneration marker (growth-associated protein 43, GAP43), and an endothelial cell marker (CD34). Nerve fibers exhibiting PGP9.5 or GAP43 immunoreactivity were often observed intimately in association with tiny blood vessels in the endotendineum of tendinopathic tendons. The expression of PGP9.5 and GAP43 were significantly higher in tendinopathic tendon compared with control tendon and torn tendon. These data support the hypothesis that early tendinopathy is associated with increases of newly grown nerve fibers and blood vessels inside and around tendinopathic tendon, and these may be the source of pain in tendinopathy. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Luke S.,Gosford Hospital | Delprado W.,Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology | Louie-Johnsun M.,Gosford Hospital
BJU International | Year: 2014

Objective: To assess the feasibility of introducing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) training during the primary surgeon's early learning curve in a regional Australian centre. Patients and methods: From a prospective single surgeon database perioperative, oncological and functional outcome data was collected from the first 207 consecutive patients who underwent LRP immediately after a 12-month LRP Fellowship in a high-volume centre by the primary surgeon (M.L.J.). A training case was defined as the successful completion of at least two of 10 steps by a training Fellow. Perioperative and oncological outcomes were compared in training and non-training cohorts and overall learning curve was assessed by comparing consecutive 50-patient cohorts. Results: In all, 31% of cases were training cases with a median (range) of 7 (2-10) steps of 10 steps performed by the training Fellow. Operative times were significantly longer in training cases (mean 269 vs 209 min; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in perioperative outcomes of length of stay (2.7 vs 2.6 days), transfusion rates (3.1% vs 2.1%), major complication (Clavien >3a) rates (1.6% vs 2.1%) or positive surgical margins (PSMs: pT2 2.8% vs 15.3% and pT3 52.0% vs 45.1%) between training and non-training groups, respectively. Overall, there were two open conversions (1.0%). Conclusion: Despite the challenging learning curve, LRP training can be commenced safely with a stepwise modular approach, even when the primary surgeon is in their early learning curve. Perioperative outcomes including PSMs and major complications were unaffected by trainee involvement. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Xu Y.,University of New South Wales | Bonar F.,Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology | Murrell G.A.C.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder and why it is so painful is undetermined. This study investigated the expression of neuronal proteins in the capsular tissue of frozen shoulder. Methods: Shoulder capsular samples were collected from 8 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis and 10 patients with a rotator cuff tear but no stiffness (controls). Samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), a general nerve marker; growth associated protein 43 (GAP43), a nerve growth marker; nerve growth factor receptor p75; and CD34, an endothelial cell marker. Results: Samples from frozen shoulders showed subsynovial hypercellularity and fibroblastic proliferation, with increased expression of nerve growth factor receptor p75 and CD34 compared with controls. Nerves positive for PGP9.5 and GAP43 were more abundant in samples of frozen shoulder (2.8 ± 0.2 and 2.4 ± 0.4 per field; P < .01) compared with controls (1.6 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.3 per field; P < .05). Expression of neuronal proteins followed that of CD34. Conclusion: Increased expression of nerve growth factor receptor and new nerve fibers were found in the shoulder capsular tissue of patients with frozen shoulder compared with those without a frozen shoulder. These data suggest that neoinnervation and neoangiogenesis in the shoulder capsule are important events in the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder and may help explain the often-severe pain of patients with frozen shoulder. © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Source

Low grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGASC) is rare but commonly reported to arise in association with benign proliferative and sclerosing breast lesions which themselves may show associated sclerosing or 'adenosquamous proliferation' (ASP) resembling LGASC, but are often derided as reactive mimics or attributed to earlier biopsy. Among other benign lesions, radial sclerosing lesion (RSL) may be associated with LGASC, yet attention is typically focused on its relationship to more common forms of mammary carcinoma. This study aimed to assess the presence and extent of ASP in the context of RSL in a small cohort of 20 cases and its similarity to LGASC. Twenty consecutive breast excisions that had a principal or incidental diagnosis of RSL were reviewed. RSLs that displayed foci of ASP were further examined with immunohistochemical markers for p63, calponin, cytokeratin 5/6, oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Sixty percent of excisions contained ASP either associated with a RSL or a concurrent papilloma, which morphologically and immunohistochemically were indistinguishable from the neoplastic ducts of LGASC. RSL with and without ASP broadly corresponded to accepted definitions for 'early' and 'late' lesions, respectively. ASP corresponded to the characteristic compact branching ducts of the core or nidus of a RSL. The morphological and immunophenotypic similarity of the ASP found in RSL and papillomata to LGASC warrants serious consideration that they are a potential precursor to LGASC, which may most commonly involute given the rarity of clinically apparent LGASC. Further study including micro-dissection of foci of ASP to compare its molecular genetic profile to that of LGASC is required. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of pathologists of Australasia. Source

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