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Vasiliadis H.-M.,Université de Sherbrooke | Latimer E.,McGill University | Latimer E.,Douglas Institute | Dionne P.-A.,Université de Sherbrooke | Preville M.,Université de Sherbrooke
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine the costs associated with antidepressant (AD) use by depression and anxiety status in a public-managed health care system. Methods: Data were obtained from a population-based health survey of 1869 older adults. Depression and anxiety were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria and measured at 2 time points 1 year apart. AD and health service use and costs were identified from provincial administrative databases and included hospitalizations, physician fees, outpatient medications, and ambulatory visits. Patient costs considered were related to drug copayments, transportation, and time spent seeking medical care. Annual costs associated with AD use were studied as a function of mental health status at baseline and follow-up interviews (persistence, incidence, remission, or no illness). Generalized linear models with a gamma distribution were used to control for individual factors. Results: The costs incurred by participants using ADs as a whole (17.8%) reached $6678 (95% CI $5449 to $8182), significantly more than in participants not using ADs ($4698; 95% CI $3710 to $5949). AD use was associated with greater total adjusted costs among respondents with no depression (adjusted difference = $1769; 95% CI $236 to $3702) and no anxiety (adjusted difference = $1845; 95% CI $203 to $3486). Conclusion: The results showed that AD use was not associated with cost savings in any group, and indeed with greater costs among participants who were neither depressed nor anxious at any time point. Future cost studies may consider the analyses of different AD classes regarding the different clinical mental health profiles in older adults.


Nazeri X.,Campbell Family Mental Health Institute | Nazeri X.,University of Toronto | Chakravarty M.,Campbell Family Mental Health Institute | Chakravarty M.,University of Toronto | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

As humans age, a characteristic pattern of widespread neocortical dendritic disruption coupled with compensatory effects in hippocampus and other subcortical structures is shown in postmortem investigations. It is now possible to address age-related effects on gray matter (GM) neuritic organization and density in humans using multishell diffusion-weighted MRI and the neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. In 45 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (21– 84 years), we used a multishell diffusion imaging and the NODDI model to assess the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) in GM tissues. Wealso determined the functional correlates of variations inGMmicrostructure by obtaining resting-state fMRI and behavioral data.We found a significant age-related deficit in neocortical ODI (most prominently in frontoparietal regions), whereas increased ODI was observed in hippocampus and cerebellum with advancing age. Neocortical ODI outperformed cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy for the prediction of chronological age in the same individuals. Higher GM ODI sampled from resting-state networks with known age-related susceptibility (default mode and visual association networks) was associated with increased functional connectivity of these networks, whereas the task-positive networks tended to show no association or even decreased connectivity. Frontal pole ODI mediated the negative relationship of age with executive function, whereas hippocampal ODI mediated the positive relationship of age with executive function. Our in vivo findings align very closely with the postmortem data and provide evidence for vulnerability and compensatory neural mechanisms of aging in GM microstructure that have functional and cognitive impact in vivo. © 2015 J. Neurosci All rights received.


Burhan A.M.,St. Joseph's Health Care London | Bartha R.,University of Western Ontario | Bocti C.,Université de Sherbrooke | Borrie M.,St. Joseph's Health Care London | And 3 more authors.
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

The Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD4) was held 3 to 4 May 2012 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A group of neuroimaging experts were assigned the task of reviewing and summarizing the literature on clinical and research applications of different neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. This paper summarizes the literature and recommendations made to the conference regarding the role of several emerging neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging are discussed in detail within this paper. Other emergent neuroimaging modalities such as positron emission tomography with novel ligands, high-field MRI, arterial spin labeling MRI and noncerebral blood flow single-photon emission computerized tomography are only discussed briefly. Neuroimaging modalities that were recommended at the CCCDTD4 for both clinical and research applications such as amyloid and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, computerized tomography and structural MRI are discussed in a separate paper by the same authors. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database including articles in English that involved human subjects and covered the period from the last CCCDTD publication (CCCDTD3; January 2006) until April 2012. Search terms included the name of the specific modality, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment. A separate search used the same parameters but was restricted to review articles to identify recent evidence-based reviews. Case studies and small case series were not included. Papers representing current evidence were selected, reviewed, and summarized, and the results were presented at the CCCDTD4 meeting with recommendations regarding the utility of various neuroimaging modalities in cognitive disorders. The evidence was graded according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine guidelines. Due to the limitations of current evidence, the neuroimaging modalities discussed in this paper were not recommended for clinical investigation of patients presenting with cognitive impairment. However, in the research setting, each modality provides a unique contribution to the understanding of basic mechanisms and neuropathological markers of cognitive disorders, to the identification of markers for early detection and for the risk of conversion to dementia in the at-risk populations, to the differentiation between different types of cognitive disorders, and to the identification of treatment targets and indicators of treatment response. In conclusion, for all of the neuroimaging modalities discussed in this paper, further studies are needed to establish diagnostic utility such as validity, reliability, and predictive and prognostic value. More multicenter studies are therefore needed with standardized image acquisition, experimental protocols, definition of the clinical population studied, larger numbers of participants, and longer duration of follow-up to allow generalizability of the results to the individual patient. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.


Brunet A.,McGill University | Brunet A.,Douglas Institute | Monson E.,McGill University
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

This In Review features a primer by Dr Jitender Sareen1 on PTSD and some of its most well-established risk and resilience factors. As noted by Dr Sareen, there is increasing evidence that PTSD is associated with suicidal risk. The second paper in this In Review is a systematic review by Dr Nicola T Fear and colleagues (see Hines et al2) on the PTSD rates observed in various armies of the world following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. As this issue of The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry is being prepared, the last members of the CAF have recently returned from Afghanistan. Several suicides by returnees from Afghanistan have been made public and reports have been echoed by the media; as a result, suicidality among the CAF's active and retired members has once again become a source of concern for all Canadians.


Cherkasova M.V.,McGill University | Faridi N.,McGill University | Casey K.F.,McGill University | O'Driscoll G.A.,McGill University | And 8 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Converging evidence from clinical, preclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic research implicates dopamine neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The in vivo neuroreceptor imaging evidence also suggests alterations in the dopamine system in ADHD; however, the nature and behavioral significance of those have not yet been established. Here, we investigated striatal dopaminergic function in ADHD using [11C]raclopride PET with a d-amphetamine challenge. We also examined the relationship of striatal dopamine responses to ADHD symptoms and neurocognitive function. A total of 15 treatment-free, noncomorbid adult males with ADHD (age: 29.87±8.65) and 18 healthy male controls (age: 25.44±6.77) underwent two PET scans: one following a lactose placebo and the other following d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered double blind and in random order counterbalanced across groups. In a separate session without a drug, participants performed a battery of neurocognitive tests. Relative to the healthy controls, the ADHD patients, as a group, showed greater d-amphetamine-induced decreases in striatal [11C]raclopride binding and performed more poorly on measures of response inhibition. Across groups, a greater magnitude of d-amphetamine-induced change in [11C]raclopride binding potential was associated with poorer performance on measures of response inhibition and ADHD symptoms. Our findings suggest an augmented striatal dopaminergic response in treatment-naive ADHD. Though in contrast to results of a previous study, this finding appears consistent with a model proposing exaggerated phasic dopamine release in ADHD. A susceptibility to increased phasic dopamine responsivity may contribute to such characteristics of ADHD as poor inhibition and impulsivity. © 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.


Latimer E.,McGill University | Latimer E.,Douglas Institute | Wynant W.,Douglas Institute | Clark R.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses | Year: 2013

Background: Clozapine remains the antipsychotic of choice for people who, having met the criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder, do not respond adequately to other antipsychotic medications. Utilization rates appear highly variable across jurisdictions, with an overall tendency toward underuse. This paper describes patterns of clozapine use in the province of Quebec, Canada. Methods: Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified using linked government medical claims and hospitalization records for 2003 and 2004. Linked data on their filled prescriptions in 2004 were then used to determine clozapine-use rates at the level of the province, the region, and the hospital at which individuals received most of their services. Individual predictors of clozapine use were identified using logistic regression. Results: Only 6.7% of the 29,155 individuals identified with schizophrenia received clozapine for six months or longer in 2004. Utilization rates ranged from 3.9 to 9.0% among regions with 1,000 or more people with schizophrenia. Over 8% of 61 hospitals did not prescribe clozapine at all. People with schizophrenia taking clozapine experienced 3.4 fewer days of hospitalization per year than those not taking clozapine-representing a cost offset of abouts1,800 per year. Medication costs were higher, however, by abouts3,000 per year. Conclusions: Given the increasingly clear benefits of clozapine for people who do not respond to other antipsychotics, measures to increase access to clozapine for people who can benefit from it are likely to be cost effective and are urgently needed.


Lee L.,McGill University | Li C.,McGill University | Landry T.,McGill University | Latimer E.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE:: To perform a systematic review of economic evaluations of enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) for colorectal surgery. BACKGROUND:: Although there is extensive literature investigating the clinical effectiveness of ERP, little is known regarding its cost-effectiveness. METHODS:: A systematic literature search identified all relevant articles published between 1997 and 2012 that performed an economic evaluation of ERP for colorectal surgery. Studies were included only if their ERP included all 5 of the key components (patient information, preservation of GI function, minimization of organ dysfunction, active pain control, and promotion of patient autonomy). Quality assessment was performed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria instrument (scored 0-19; high quality ≥ 12). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated if sufficient data were provided, using difference in length of stay and overall complication rates as effectiveness measures. RESULTS:: Of a total of 263 unique records identified (253 from databases and 10 from other sources), 10 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included for full qualitative synthesis. Overall quality was poor (mean quality 7.8). Eight reported lower costs for ERP. The majority (8 of 10) of studies were performed from an institutional perspective and therefore did not include costs related to changes in productivity and other indirect costs (eg, caregiver burden). Five studies provided enough information to calculate ICERs, of which ERP was dominant (less costly and more effective) in all cases for reduction in length of stay and was dominant or potentially cost-effective in 4 and questionable (no difference in costs nor effectiveness) in 1 for reduction in overall complications. CONCLUSIONS:: The quality of the current evidence is limited but tends to support the cost-effectiveness of ERP. There is need for well-designed trials to determine the cost-effectiveness of ERP from both the institutional and societal perspectives. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Renaud S.,Douglas Institute | Corbalan F.,Douglas Institute | Beaulieu S.,Douglas Institute
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Background: Differential diagnosis between bipolar affective disorder type II and borderline personality disorder can be problematic yet a priority for effective treatment planning. Diagnosis is problematic when symptoms do not present enough intensity or duration to clear the issue but also when there is a relative overlap of criteria between both disorders. If for many patients, the diagnosis is more easily differentiated, confounding conditions are found in 20% of cases for which it becomes a significant issue. Method: A research with the key words affective instability, borderline personality disorder, and bipolar disorder on Medline and Psych-Info was done. Other references were found through this review in related articles. Comparison of data about the affective dimensions concerning bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder was noted. Results: Affective instability is a confounding factor: quality and intensity of affects, speed of fluctuations, affective response to social stress, and its modulation are core elements of affective instability that need to be analyzed to clarify a proper diagnosis. Limitations: There is further necessity for research about affective instability in the 2 diagnoses. Conclusions: Making a valid differential diagnosis has an important clinical value in order for the clinician to plan proper treatment. Analysis of the affective experience and its qualitative and quantitative facets can help establish it. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Lloyd S.,Douglas Institute | Moreau N.,University of Ottawa
Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness | Year: 2011

Throughout the process of being treated for mood and anxiety disorders, people dream of the "normal life" that awaits them. However, post-therapy, the distinctiveness of clinical normality (i.e., reduced symptomatology) and social normativity become more apparent. In this article we suggest that for people who have long felt socially excluded because of their psychiatric symptoms, being "normally shy" or "normally awkward" is not enough. Instead they aspire to an ideal life. This confusion between means and ends, between a nonsymptomatic self, a normative self, and an ideal self, leads these individuals to long-term self-doubt and confusion about how to reach their elusive goals. Yet, their never-ending pursuit of normative ideals applies to "normal" and "abnormal" people alike. An analysis of narratives of exclusion allows us to reflect the life-long search for social inclusion via a normal life. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Renaud S.M.,Douglas Institute | Zacchia C.,Douglas Institute
Harvard Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Affective instability is a psychophysiological symptom observed in some psychopathologies. It is a complex construct that encompasses (1) primary emotions, or affects, and secondary emotions, with each category having its own characteristics, amplitude, and duration, (2) rapid shifting from neutral or valenced affect to intense affect, and (3) dysfunctional modulation of emotions. Affective instability is often confused with mood lability, as in bipolar disorders, as well as with other terms. To clarify the concept, we searched databases for the term affective instability and read related articles on the topic. In this article we situate the term within the current affective nomenclature and human emotional experience, explore its psychophysiological features, and place it within the context of psychopathology. We explain why the term can potentially be confused with mood pathology and then define affective instability as an inherited temperamental trait modulated by developmental experience. © 2012 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

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