Fuentes A.-L.,City University of New York |
Millis L.,P.A. College |
Vapenik J.,Douglas College |
Sigola L.,P.A. College
Journal of Surgical Research | Year: 2014
Background Fungal and bacterial coinfections are common in surgical settings; however, little is known about the effects of polymicrobial interactions on the cellular mechanisms involved in innate immune recognition and phagocytosis. Materials and methods Zymosan particles, cell wall derivatives of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are used to model fungal interactions with host immune cells since they display carbohydrates, including beta-glucan, that are characteristic of fungal pathogens. Using in vitro cell culture, RAW 264.7 macrophages were challenged with zymosan, and phagocytosis determined via light microscopy. The effects of different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on zymosan phagocytosis were assessed. In addition, the transfer of supernatant from LPS-treated cells to naïve cells, the effects of soluble carbohydrates laminarin, mannan, or galactomannan, and the impact of complement receptor 3 (CR3) inhibition on phagocytosis were also determined. Results LPS enhanced phagocytosis of zymosan in a dose-dependent manner. Transfer of supernatants from LPS-primed cells to naïve cells had no effect on phagocytosis. Laminarin inhibited zymosan phagocytosis in naïve cells but not in LPS-primed cells. Neither mannan, galactomannan, nor CR3 inhibition had a significant effect on ingestion of unopsonized zymosan in naïve or LPS-treated cells. Conclusions Zymosan recognition by naïve cells is inhibited by laminarin, but not mannan, galactomannan, or CR3 inhibition. LPS enhancement of phagocytosis is laminarin insensitive and not mediated by supernatant factors or zymosan engagement by the mannose or CR3 receptors. Our data suggest alternative mechanisms of zymosan recognition in the presence and absence of LPS. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zickfeld K.,Simon Fraser University |
Herrington T.,Simon Fraser University |
Herrington T.,Douglas College
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2015
In a recent letter, Ricke and Caldeira (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 124002) estimated that the timing between an emission and the maximum temperature response is a decade on average. In their analysis, they took into account uncertainties about the carbon cycle, the rate of ocean heat uptake and the climate sensitivity but did not consider one important uncertainty: the size of the emission. Using simulations with an Earth System Model we show that the time lag between a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission pulse and the maximum warming increases for larger pulses. Our results suggest that as CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, the full warming effect of an emission may not be felt for several decades, if not centuries. Most of the warming, however, will emerge relatively quickly, implying that CO2 emission cuts will not only benefit subsequent generations but also the generation implementing those cuts. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Rickards K.J.C.,University of Guelph |
Rickards K.J.C.,Douglas College |
Boulding E.G.,University of Guelph
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2015
Animals living in intertidal habitats experience high temperatures and low humidity during emersion that represent extreme deviations from those experienced during immersion; some use behaviour to ameliorate these stressors. We made in situ observations of 3 behaviours displayed by the Pacific intertidal snail Littorina subrotundata on 3 exposed rocky intertidal shores in the northeast Pacific: microhabitat selection, activity level, and conspecific aggregation. We hypothesized that these behaviours might be altered in response to temperature and/or humidity at a particular time during tidal emersion. We used the Akaike information criterion to compare a set of models for each of the 3 behaviours that included combinations of substrate temperature (Ts), vapour pressure deficit (VPD) (which encompasses humidity), emersion time, snail shell width (Size), and study site (Site) as the independent variables. The best supported model of microhabitat selection in the summers of 2011 and 2012 used only the independent variables Site and Size. The best supported model of activity included both Ts and VPD in 2011 but included only Ts in 2012; increased Ts resulted in decreased activity. None of the models in the set explained much of the variance in conspecific aggregation. We conclude an alternate cue for microhabitat selection is likely in this system and suggest that biogenic refuges created by barnacles are a likely driver. Our findings also suggest that thermal stress during emersion is the primary cue that informs the snails to reduce their activity. © Inter-Research 2015.
Jones B.A.,Simon Fraser University |
Wagner L.S.,Simon Fraser University |
Watson N.V.,Simon Fraser University |
Watson N.V.,Douglas College
Endocrinology | Year: 2016
The industrial plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine disruptor to which the general human population is routinely exposed. Although BPA is well known as an estrogenic mimic, there have been some suggestions that this compound may also alter activity at the androgen receptor. To determine whether BPA does have antiandrogenic properties, we evaluated BPA effects in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus and dorsolateral nucleus, sexually dimorphic groups of motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord that are critically dependent on androgens for survival and maintenance, as well as the monomorphic retrodorsolateral nucleus. In experiment 1, we administered varying concentrations of BPA to juvenile rats pre- and postnatally and examined both the number and size of motor neurons in adulthood. In experiment 2, different doses of BPA were given to adult rats for 28 days, after which the soma size of motor neurons were measured. Although no effect of BPA on neural survival or soma size was noted after perinatal BPA exposure, BPA exposure did result in a decrease in soma size in all motor neuron pools after chronic exposure in adulthood. These findings are discussed with regard to putative antiandrogenic effects of BPA; we argue that BPA is not antiandrogenic but is acting through nonandrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms. © 2016 by the Endocrine Society.
Storey B.,Douglas College |
Butler J.,University of British Columbia
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy | Year: 2013
Background: This article draws on the literature relating to game-centred approaches (GCAs), such as Teaching Games for Understanding, and dynamical systems views of motor learning to demonstrate a convergence of ideas around games as complex adaptive learning systems. This convergence is organized under the title 'complexity thinking' and gives rise to a comprehensive model of game-based learning that addresses theoretical and practitioner considerations relevant to researchers and teachers. Complexity thinking is also partnered with an ecological integration value orientation to reinforce the dominant purposes of game-based learning in physical education. Key concepts: The study of game-based learning from a complexity thinking perspective relies on the foundational alignment of game characteristics with those of complex learning systems. Both complex learning systems and games are (a) comprised of codependent agents, (b) self-organizing, (c) open to disturbance, (d) sites of coemergent learning, (e) open to varying experiences or interpretations of time, and (f) able to evolve their structures in response to feedback. Considering games as learning systems opens the door to consideration of the system being as sustainable and adaptable as it can. Sustainability, adaptation potential, and engagement levels emerge from the 'game as learning system' discussion in order to provide insight into the functioning of the game. High levels of engagement and sustainability are the presented goals for teachers working from a complexity thinking perspective. A number of key concepts from systems literature, such as attractors, affordances, attunement, and disturbances, are discussed as identifiable and manipulatable dimensions of game-based learning. Implications for the PE profession: Physical educators are well positioned to notice learning as it emerges and to construct environments that focus learning without forcing learning. Complexity thinking concepts such as flow, coupling, engagement, attractors, affordances, attunement, and disturbance, in combination with the pedagogical principles advocated by GCAs, provide a robust set of analytical and teaching tools. It is to be hoped that a deepening of understanding of how game forms and game play lead to learning during games will improve the quality of learning experiences in games and foster increasing and prolonged engagement by students. © 2013 Association for Physical Education.
Clasen J.L.,University of British Columbia |
Clasen J.L.,Douglas College |
Shurin J.B.,University of British Columbia |
Shurin J.B.,University of California at San Diego
Ecology | Year: 2015
Bacteria are ubiquitous and important components of marine ecosystems, yet the interaction between bacteria and higher trophic levels remain poorly understood. The trophic cascade involving sea otters, urchins, and kelp in the North Pacific is a classic case of altered ecosystem states; however, its impacts on microbial communities are unknown. We investigated the response of microbial communities to variation in kelp abundance between regions with and without sea otter populations along the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We compared bacterial community structure and function between regions with large and small kelp forests, including an subset of the bacterial community that produces alginate lyase, which allows direct utilization of kelp carbon. The abundance and activity of alginate-lyase-producing bacteria were 3.2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively, in the region with large kelp forests, and declined rapidly with increasing distance from kelp. Total bacterial abundance was 2.7 times greater, and bacteria grew faster and experienced more zooplankton grazing and viral-mediated mortality in the presence of large kelp forests. These patterns suggest that larger kelp forests produce more detritus and dissolved organic matter, which stimulate microbial activity. Our results indicate that variation in kelp forest size alters the community structure and productivity of microbes and contributes to the growing evidence that top predators interact with microbes and ecosystem processes through a cascade of indirect effects. © 2015 by the Ecological Society of America.
Butler J.I.,University of British Columbia |
Storey B.,Douglas College |
Robson C.,University of Calgary
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2014
Although Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) has gained ground, pedagogical models are sustainable only when situated in a comprehensive worldview and consistent epistemology. After considering the five values orientations offered by Jewett, Bain, and Ennis, the authors conclude that ecological integration offers a useful starting point in this regard, but taking this a step further, they offer a worldview that they call ecological complexity, woven together from social constructivism, complexity, and ecological thinking. Since the authors argue that teachers who espouse this worldview focus on emergent learning, they have coined the term emergent learning focused (ELF) teacher to describe the pedagogical approaches that might result. These encourage the spontaneous play seen in the schoolyard, playground, or village green as opposed to work in the factory. ELF teachers encourage learners to develop holistically as they construct meaning, positioning themselves in the ecosphere of which they form an integral part. The authors apply ecological complexity to Inventing Games, in which learners invent and refine games within the TGfU classifications. They argue that as learners work together to invent and develop ownership of their games, they engage in a cognitive apprenticeship that prepares them for life in the wider community. Specifically, learners develop core social and emotional learning skills in a process that the authors have termed situated ethics. As game play structures and constraints work in balance to produce disturbances, learners adapt and game play evolves. Learners learn to navigate these adaptations and evolutions by creating sustainable democratic processes. Teachers who operate from an ecological complexity worldview see all educational agents-learners, teachers, administrators, curriculum, school, community, and culture-as parts of a sustainable learning system. The authors conclude by offering the building blocks they believe might move this system closer to sustainability in games education. © 2012 © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
Angelbeck B.,Douglas College
World Archaeology | Year: 2016
Abstract: Coast Salish peoples of the Northwest Coast of North America were traditionally complex hunter-gatherer-fishers, organized primarily as independent households for most subsistence endeavours. In so doing, they exhibited a strong degree of local and individual autonomy. Sociopolitically, they were anarchic, without formal institutions of government, and their villages were decentralized in structure. Yet they coordinated their defences on scales of organization beyond the local household, requiring the negotiation of consensus among those independent households. In this article, I apply an anarchist analysis to evaluate Coast Salish defensive strategies reflected in fortifications and refuges for the period from 1600 bp through the early post-contact period. Using ethnographic studies, I consider how Coast Salish peoples were able to balance local autonomy against the shared societal needs of coordinated defensive action and examine how these dynamics were materialized in defensive features in the landscape. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.
News Article | November 17, 2016
OUGA.SG) ("CardioComm" or the "Company"), a global medical provider of consumer heart monitoring and medical electrocardiogram ("ECG") software solutions, today announced the appointment of Ms. Margaret (Meg) Helms as the newest member of the Company's Board of Directors ("BOD"). Ms. Helms is a veteran mergers and acquisitions ("M&A") professional with over 25 years of executive level experience in business transactions. These include publicly traded and privately held acquisitions, divestitures, equity investments and IP licensing, as well as distribution, supply, and co-promotion agreements. Her deals have spanned the globe, including China, Israel, Mexico and the EU. Meg's extensive track record of completed global transactions includes medical devices, pharmaceuticals, biologics, and health information technologies. As the President and Founder of Morgan Wallace Associates, a global strategic healthcare M&A consulting firm focused on small to mid-cap companies, Ms. Helms works with private equity firms, medical start-up companies, and medical device inventors who are seeking licensees and/or strategic partners. Prior to Morgan Wallace Associates, Meg spent 31 years with Johnson & Johnson ("J&J"). During this time, she was responsible for new business development, closing dozens of M&A transactions, and contributing to a cumulative Business Unit revenue growth of over $500 million. She is particularly skilled at handling complex global acquisitions, most recently in Israel and China. Ms. Helms holds an MBA from Washington University - St. Louis, and a BA from Rutgers University (Douglas College), New Brunswick, NJ. She is a member of the professional Licensing Executives Society (LES), the Healthcare Businesswomen's Association (HBA), and the Women's Business Leaders in Healthcare (WBL). Meg is also very active in community service and not-for-profit organizations. Ms. Helms' addition to the BOD was accomplished by a voluntary change in roles. Ms. Helms takes the board seat that was intended for Dr. David Armstrong, who will remain active as a member of the Company's Advisory Board, and focus on identifying global investors for CardioComm. Ms. Helms' addition to the BOD caps a busy Q3 at the executive management and board levels, which included the addition of Dr. David Armstrong and Dr. Robin Black to the Advisory Board, the selection of John Overall to the position of CFO, and the appointment of Robert Caines, Founding Partner of Paley Advisors, to the position of Chairman of the Board. These executive and board-level changes have occurred as the Company's fiscal performance has significantly improved. As stated in the Company's Q3 Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A), published this week on SEDAR, CardioComm is reporting a profitable Q3. The Company's immediate priority is the retirement of its current line of credit, due at the end of December 2016. The Company has entered into financing discussions with several investors, seeking to retire the line of credit through new debt placement or a combination of a debt facility and equity. In tandem with its efforts to retire the current line of credit, the BOD continues to focus on sourcing long-term financing for closing potential bolt-on acquisitions and closing several joint venture deals in 2017 that will expand operational capacities and stimulate sales of the Company's Global ECG Management Software (GEMS™ WIN), handheld HeartCheck™ ECG devices and SMART Monitoring ECG services. To learn more about CardioComm Solutions please see the Company's websites www.theheartcheck.com and www.cardiocommsolutions.com or contact the Company at firstname.lastname@example.org. CardioComm Solutions' patented and proprietary technology is used in products for recording, viewing, analyzing, and storing electrocardiograms (ECGs) for diagnosis and management of cardiac patients. Products are sold worldwide through a combination of an external distribution network and a North American-based sales team. The Company has earned the ISO 13485 certification, is HPB approved, HIPAA compliant, and has received FDA market clearance for its software devices. CardioComm Solutions is headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT: Etienne Grima, Chief Executive Officer 1-877-977-9425 x 227 email@example.com www.cardiocommsolutions.com This release may contain certain forward-looking statements and forward-looking information with respect to the financial condition, results of operations and business of CardioComm Solutions and certain of the plans and objectives of CardioComm Solutions with respect to these items. Such statements and information reflect management's current beliefs and are based on information currently available to management. By their nature, forward-looking statements and forward-looking information involve risk and uncertainty because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future and there are many factors that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements and forward-looking information. In evaluating these statements, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements and forward-looking information. The Company does not assume any obligation to update the forward-looking statements and forward-looking information contained in this release other than as required by applicable laws, including without limitation, Section 5.8(2) of National Instrument 51-102 (Continuous Disclosure Obligations). Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
News Article | December 8, 2016
Leaders in Mineral Exploration and Mine Development to be Recognized at January 25 Gala VANCOUVER, BC--(Marketwired - December 07, 2016) - The Association for Mineral Exploration ("AME") is pleased to announce its 2016 award recipients. AME will salute its leaders at the AME Awards Celebration of Excellence Gala on January 25 during the AME Roundup 2017 conference. Tickets are available through registration at www.amebc.ca/roundup. "It is our honor to recognize with these awards those in our industry who through their leadership, resilience and innovation have contributed at the highest standards of excellence in exploration and mineral development," says Diane Nicolson, Chair of the Board of Directors of AME. "What they have attained is an inspiration to all and we look forward to celebrating their achievements with you at the Awards Gala at AME Roundup." Chris Rockingham, Carl Edmunds and Wade Barnes, recognized with the H.H. "Spud" Huestis Award for excellence in prospecting and mineral exploration for their discovery and resource definition of AuRico Metals Inc.'s Kemess East deposit in British Columbia. Don Parsons and Steve Robertson, recipients of the E.A. Scholz Award for excellence in mine development in British Columbia and Yukon. They are honoured for their pivotal role in advancing Imperial Metals Corporation's Red Chris copper-gold project in British Columbia from development to commercial production. Terry Salman, recipient of the 2016 Murray Pezim Award recognizing perseverance and success in financing mining exploration. Terry has been a leader in junior company exploration financing for the past 40 years through his career at Nesbitt Thomson, Salman Partners and Salman Capital Inc. William Lamb and Lukas Lundin, recognized with the Hugo Dummett Diamond Award for excellence in diamond exploration and development in recognition of their roles in developing Lucara Diamond Corporation's Karowe Mine in Botswana. Dr. David Broughton and Sello Kekana, recipients of the Colin Spence Award for excellence in global mineral exploration. They are recognized for their work that led to the discovery of the Tier One Flatreef underground deposit at Ivanhoe Mines' Platreef platinum group metals-nickel-copper-gold project in the heart of South Africa's Bushveld Complex. Jim Cooney, recipient of the Robert R. Hedley Award for excellence in social and environmental responsibility as a leader and mentor who has led and shaped the integration of environmental and social values into the mining industry. The late Graham Ennis, honoured with the David Barr Award for excellence in leadership and innovation in mineral exploration health and safety for passion and dedication to the well-being and safety of employees in the diamond drilling industry. JoAnne Nelson, a 30-year veteran of the British Columbia Geological Survey, the recipient of a Special Tribute in recognition of her distinguished career in geoscience work focused on the tectonics, structural geology and metallogeny of the Northern Cordillera spanning British Columbia, Yukon and Alaska. Susan Craig, recognized with the Gold Pan Award for her exceptional meritorious service to the mineral exploration community through AME. Barb Caelles, Alex Christopher and Diane Gregory, honoured with the Frank Woodside Past Presidents and Past Chairs Award for their distinguished service to the association and/or contribution to the mineral industry. The two recipients of AME's Outreach Education Fund are Britannia Mine Museum for its education programs and MineralsEd for its Kids & Rocks program. AME is the lead association for the mineral exploration and development industry based in British Columbia. Established in 1912, AME represents, advocates, protects and promotes the interests of thousands of members who are engaged in mineral exploration and development in British Columbia and throughout the world. AME encourages a safe, economically strong and environmentally responsible industry by providing clear initiatives, policies, events and tools to support its membership. Leaders in Mineral Exploration and Mine Development to be Recognized at January 25 Gala Vancouver, B.C. - December 7, 2016 - The Association for Mineral Exploration (AME) is pleased to announce its 2016 award recipients. AME will salute its leaders at the AME Awards Celebration of Excellence Gala on January 25 during the AME Roundup 2017 conference. Tickets are available through registration at www.amebc.ca/roundup. Chris Rockingham, Carl Edmunds and Wade Barnes are the recipients of the 2016 H.H. "Spud" Huestis Award for Excellence in Prospecting and Mineral Exploration. It is often said that patience and perseverance surmount every difficulty. The discovery of the Kemess East deposit epitomizes this. Under the leadership of Chris Rockingham, the geological insight of Carl Edmunds and execution of Wade Barnes, a blind porphyry gold copper deposit was discovered and delineated. The recognition that the Kemess North deposit was terminated on its northern and eastern edges by faults led the team to search for the offset under deep post-mineral cover. The first indications of a blind mineralized system were encountered in 2002. By the following year, with a large area of phyllic alteration and some low-grade mineralization, Chris, Carl and Wade were confident that they were vectoring towards better mineralization. This was apparent in 2007 when their fourth hole intersected the longest mineralized intercept in the entire Kemess database to that point, but perhaps more importantly, hole 24 intersected 162 m of 0.62 g/t gold and 0.53% copper in potassic altered intrusive. At this point, however, all exploration stopped as the Kemess North open pit proposal was rejected by the federal government. By 2010, commodity price changes made the concept of block caving appear viable, and Kemess North studies were reinitiated. Nonetheless, exploration did not resume again at Kemess East until 2013 and by January 2015, the first resource estimate was released. The most recent drilling has confirmed and upgraded the initial resources estimation, with spectacular drill intercepts such as 628 m of 0.53 g/t gold with 0.41% copper and the deposit remains open in some areas. Chris has a Master of Science in Geology from the University of Western Ontario and an MBA from the Richard Ivey School of Business. Chris's current role is Vice President, Development at AuRico Metals Inc. While Chris's unwavering belief in the project has been critical, perhaps the key role that he has brought to this project has been his thoughtful commitment to aboriginal engagement. Carl graduated from Queen's University with a Master of Science in Mineral Exploration and currently holds the position of Chief Geologist at Silver Standard Resources Inc. Carl was Exploration Manager at Kemess from 2003 to 2012 and along with Wade made the seemingly bold projections on the potential grade and tonnage at Kemess East. Wade is a geology graduate of Simon Fraser University and has been with the project almost since its inception. As Project Geologist, Wade was instrumental in designing and overseeing the 2013-2015 drilling campaigns with his interpretations being the basis for the resource estimates. Don Parsons and Steve Robertson are the recipients of the 2016 E.A. Scholz Award for Excellence in Mine Development in British Columbia and/or Yukon. They are being honoured for their pivotal role in advancing the Red Chris copper-gold project in northwestern British Columbia from development to commercial production between 2007 and 2015. Exploration at the Red Chris deposit was first reported in 1956 but its development began in earnest after the project was acquired in February 2007 by Imperial Metals Corporation, where Don was Chief Operating Officer (as he is today) and Steve was Exploration Manager. Following the acquisition of Red Chris, Imperial's engineering and development team under the leadership of Don re-appraised the existing engineering and feasibility studies and incorporated updated financial, political and technical data into their mine plan. Concurrently, Imperial began a deep drilling campaign under Steve's direction to ascertain the ultimate size of the project. The results of this program exceeded all expectations for tonnage and grade and helped facilitate financing and a positive construction decision for the mine. The Mines Act Permit application was submitted in 2010 and was shepherded through the process over the next two years under the direction of Don and Steve, with its successful completion allowing the start of mine construction at Red Chris in the summer of 2012. Concurrently with mine construction, a 93-kilometre extension of the 287 kilovolt Northwest Transmission Line power line to the mine site was permitted and built. While Don was overseeing the construction and commissioning of the mine, Steve continued to work in his new role as Vice President Corporate Affairs on all the social and political aspects of the project. This included ongoing permitting issues and working with the Tahltan Nation to ultimately complete an Impact, Benefit and Co-Management Agreement which provides the basis for partnership between the Tahltan people and Red Chris for the life of the mine. The Red Chris mine, treating 30,000 tonnes of copper-gold ore per day and employing 350 workers including 120 Tahltan from local communities, commenced commercial production on July 1, 2015 and has operated since then without significant issues. Currently, it has a mine life of another 26 years. Developing, permitting and constructing a project of the magnitude of Red Chris requires many dedicated and hard-working people with talents and abilities in a variety of fields. Don and Steve were able to coordinate and direct those people so as to achieve a common goal: the successful construction of a new mine. For their skill, dedication and perseverance, Don Parsons and Steve Robertson are worthy recipients of the E. A. Scholz Award for 2016. The Murray Pezim Award was created to recognize perseverance and success in financing mining exploration in British Columbia and Yukon. Terry Salman is the 2016 recipient of this award in recognition of his remarkable career in Canadian mining finance. Terry has been a leader in financing junior exploration and mid-cap to large mining companies over the past 35 years. He began his career at Nesbitt Thomson in 1973, rising from a Research Analyst to Executive Vice-President and Director. He is a highly respected investment banker with a focus on natural resources. At Nesbitt Thomson, Terry helped create the first mining team and in the early 1990s established Nesbitt Thomson's first gold conference in Whistler, which ultimately became BMO's Global Metals & Mining Conference. He left Nesbitt Thomson in 1994 to form Salman Partners where he was President, Chief Executive Officer and Co-Director of Research. For 22 years, Salman Partners was a leading resource based investment dealer known for its high-quality research and integrity. Salman Partners participated in syndicates that helped raise $20 billion for more than 400 companies. Salman Partners provided investment analysis across a wide range of sectors, but over the years carved out a specialty in the Vancouver-based resource industry. In 2016, Salman Partners voluntarily resigned from the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada due to a dramatically changing investment climate for independent investment dealers. Currently, Terry is President and CEO of Salman Capital Inc., an investment advisory and merchant banking firm, capitalizing on his extensive network and relationships he has built in the mining and investment business. In addition to his highly successful work career, Terry has tirelessly devoted his services to many industry and community non-profit organizations, including an important role in initial fundraising for the Britannia Mine Museum. In 2008, Terry was appointed to the Government of Canada's Expert Panel on Securities Regulations. He is a Past-Chair of the Investment Dealers Association of Canada. In 2009, he was awarded a Doctor of Technology honoris causa by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. Terry also served as Chair of the Vancouver Public Library Foundation for sixteen years and is currently Chair Emeritus. Terry has also served as Chair of St. Paul's Hospital Foundation and has been a director of the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation of Canada and the Canadian Stem Cell Network. Currently, he serves on the advisory boards of the Investment Industry Association of Canada and Pathfinder Asset Management Limited and is a member of the Campaign Executive Committee of St. Paul's Hospital Foundation. In recognition of his outstanding volunteer contributions, Terry was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012. Because of his outstanding career in financing the junior exploration industry, as well as his commitment to volunteer community stewardship, Terry Salman is a deserving recipient of the 2016 Murray Pezim Award. The Hugo Dummett Diamond Award was created to honour those who have made a significant contribution to diamond exploration, discovery or diamond mine development. William Lamb and Lukas Lundin, President, CEO & Director and Chairman & Director respectively, of Lucara Diamond Corp. are the 2016 recipients of the Hugo Dummett Award in recognition of their roles in developing the Karowe Mine in Botswana. William has a Diploma in Extraction Metallurgy, an MBA in Finance and over 23 years of experience in operational and project management in the precious metals, coal, chrome and diamond sectors in South Africa and Canada. Prior to joining Lucara in 2008, he spent 13 years with De Beers working across their operations in southern Africa and at the Victor Mine in Canada, focusing on heavy mineral concentration, project development and operational readiness. Lukas has an engineering degree and he is well known for recognizing value and superior global investment opportunities in the natural resource sector. His uninhibited pursuit of highly prospective properties around the world has resulted in numerous resource discoveries in addition to Karowe including the multi-million ounce Veladero gold discovery. Lucara is a member of the Lundin Group of Companies and was founded, with Lukas's backing, as a diamond company in 2007. The AK6 kimberlite pipe, now known as Karowe, was discovered almost 50 years ago. It was deemed uneconomic at the time, and there was limited exploration on the property until around 12 years ago. William, who had been given the mandate by Lukas and the Lucara Board of Directors to find the best undeveloped diamond project in the world and bring it into production, was aware of Karowe and believed the original assessment was not correct. He and his technical team determined that the value of the project had been underestimated due to diamond breakage. Lukas provided the financial backing to initially acquire a 70% interest in the project, and then a full 100% interest in the project in 2010. Lukas brought it into production in 2012 by way of a personal loan facility, a guarantee for the original purchase price and the financial support to raise funds to finance development of the mine. Further analysis confirmed that Karowe had the potential for the recovery of large, high value Type IIA diamonds, which could also positively impact the commercial diamond value. William recognized the importance of applying and installing new, cutting-edge X-ray technology in tandem with high capacity bulk sorting to facilitate recovery of these large stones. The potential for large, high-value diamonds at Karowe has been validated by the recovery of over 100 diamonds of greater than 100 carats each since the mine opened, including the 813-ct Constellation and the 1109-ct Lesedi La Rona diamond, the world's second largest gem-quality diamond ever recovered. Karowe is truly one of the world's most unique sources of exceptionally large, high quality, gem diamonds. The financial strength and entrepreneurial vision of Lukas Lundin allowed Lucara to acquire the Karowe diamond project, and the engineering ability, processing knowledge and determination of William Lamb and his engineering and construction team brought it into production on schedule and under budget. Lukas and William are deserving recipients of the Hugo Dummett Diamond Award for their roles in the realization of this unique project. This year's recipients of the Colin Spence Award, for making a significant mineral discovery outside of British Columbia and Yukon through the original application of prospecting techniques or other geoscience technology, are Dr. David Broughton and Sello Kekana. They are being recognized for their outstanding work that led to the discovery of the Tier One Flatreef underground deposit at Ivanhoe Mines Ltd.'s Platreef platinum group metals (PGMs) and nickel-copper-gold project in the Northern Limb of South Africa's Bushveld Complex. David Broughton, who received a PhD in Geology from Colorado School of Mines, joined Ivanhoe Mines as Executive Vice President Exploration in January 2008 and is currently Senior Advisor, Exploration and Geology. His career began in Canada in 1984, where he was involved in the mining and exploration for gold, uranium and base metals. In 1997, his focus turned to stratiform copper deposits and he began working in the Central African Copperbelt followed by projects in Namibia, China, United States, Canada and Poland. David was co-leader of Ivanhoe Mines' Kamoa discovery team. Upon joining Ivanhoe, David also assumed responsibility for exploration at the Platreef Project. Sello Kekana was born in Kgobudi village, South Africa, which lies within Ivanhoe's Platreef Project area. He holds a Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of the Witwatersrand. Sello started his professional career in mineral research and then worked as a geotechnologist for a groundwater company. In 2003 he joined Ivanhoe Mines and has worked on projects in South Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. Sello played a key role in the discovery of the Flatreef deposit, advancing from Geologist, to Project Manager, to General Manager, to Group Manager - Geology. During 2011-2012 Sello managed the deep drilling, which during his tenure expanded to include 30 drill rigs, that delineated the Flatreef deposit. Since January 2015, he has been the Head of Transformation for Ivanplats. Work leading to the discovery of the Flatreef deposit began more than 15 years ago. Exploration in the area by Ivanhoe Mines and its subsidiaries led to delineation of a large, near-surface, low-grade resource that was amenable to open pit mining; however, the open pit area was overlain by villages with a combined population of more than 30,000 people. Realizing the challenges involved with relocating the villagers, the company's geological team led by David and Sello began work to identify other zones of mineralization on the property. Their unique approach, which included applying advanced geophysical modelling to high-resolution airborne gravity data, resulted in the realization in 2010 that the regionally steeply west-dipping mineralized reef flattened at a depth of roughly 700 m below surface on Ivanhoe's property. Deep drilling on the deposit has defined a flat- to gently-dipping NI 43-101 compliant Indicated Mineral Resource with an average thickness of 24 m and a strike length in excess of 6 km, containing an estimated 1.2 million kg (42 million oz) of PGMs plus gold at a cut-off of 2 g/t, and an additional 1.5 million kg (52.8 million oz) of PGMs plus gold in Inferred Resources. The Indicated and Inferred Resources also contain 1.6 and 2.4 billion kilograms of nickel and copper, respectively. Project development commenced in 2014 and shaft sinking is underway. Flatreef is distinguished from other Bushveld projects by its tremendous size and thickness, its high-grade polymetallic nature and potential for byproduct credits of nickel and copper, and its flat-lying orientation leading to the potential for safe, mechanized underground mining. David Broughton and Sello Kekana are deserving recipients of the Colin Spence Award for their roles in the discovery and delineation of this world class deposit. Jim Cooney is the recipient of the Robert R. Hedley Award for Excellence in Social and Environmental Responsibility. Jim is a leader and mentor who has led and shaped the integration of environmental and social values into the mining industry. From early in his career in the 1970s he began incorporating social considerations into mining by directing Cominco's first social impact assessment at what is now the Highland Valley Copper mine. By the early 1990s, following the UN's adoption of sustainable development, Jim began publishing articles that promoted this as a mining company strategy for managing social and political risks. He has been an outspoken advocate for sustainable development ever since as well as an advocate for the inclusion of Indigenous peoples and perspectives into the mining industry. In 1996 Jim was the driving force that led Placer Dome to adopt a policy of sustainable development, the first mining company to do so. Shortly afterward as Chair of the Policy Committee of the International Council on Mining and the Environment (now the ICMM) he successfully led the effort to convince mining companies around the world to adopt sustainable development policies. Among his many significant accomplishments, Jim coined the term "social licence to operate" at a World Bank meeting in 1997. This term has become a widely accepted reference point for mining companies in their relationship with local communities. Jim has inspired and mentored more than one new generation of mining industry professionals. Through teaching at the University of British Columbia, presenting at conferences, participating on committees and providing his time and expertise, he has changed the industry's outlook on working with communities and bringing about positive benefits to communities. Although semi-retired, Jim continues to mentor industry practitioners and leaders, and to shape the progress of the mining industry's social and environmental practices. Graham Ennis is posthumously recognized with the David Barr Award for Excellence in Leadership and Innovation in Mineral Exploration Health and Safety. Graham's passion and dedication to the well-being and safety of employees was simply unsurpassed. His drive and devotion was primarily fueled by experiences from the former part of his career in the mining and forestry sectors, in both British Columbia and Yukon. Through his avalanche rescue and recovery work and mine rescue involvement within these respective sectors, Graham had the unfortunate experience of rescuing or recovering colleagues from both serious and fatal workplace accidents on multiple occasions. Graham transitioned to the mineral exploration sector in 2006 to pursue his passion for safety by accepting a position in the Northwest Territories as a Safety Representative with Major Drilling Group. He moved to Manitoba shortly thereafter upon being promoted to the role of Safety Coordinator, eventually leading to the position of Health, Safety, Environment and Community Manager few years later. During his tenure at Major, Graham worked tirelessly to improve safety performance, always with the best interest of the crews at heart. From the onset, he was adamant on training, emergency preparedness, the implementation of an intensive accident investigation protocol and the return to work process. Even in a managerial role, he kept a direct pulse on the safety culture as well as the challenges and issues faced by the crews through frequent field visits across Canadian surface and underground operations including some international sites. His observations often led to recommendations and continual improvement efforts within the organization. As such, he was instrumental in the development and implementation of numerous company safety programs, including a comprehensive program for constructing and working on ice covers. He was always eager to roll up his sleeves to take the lead or mentor ice crews on ice testing and monitoring techniques to ensure that company protocols were strictly followed. Graham was a strong advocate of sharing best practices, experiences and lessons learned, transcending company boundaries. He was always generous with his time as well as with his wealth of knowledge, experience and industry contacts accumulated over the years. He was an enthusiastic supporter of the Canadian Diamond Drilling Association (CDDA); his involvement ranged from presenting papers at the association's Annual General Meeting and Convention to working at the sub-committee level with respect to industry training and safety issues. He was also a long-standing chair of the CDDA's Western Safety Group - coordinating venues and speakers, and relentless rallying for continued support and participation from industry and government parties alike. Graham was also a very active and well-respected member of the Mine Accident Prevention Association of Manitoba (MAPAM) Board of Directors from 2008 through 2015. During this time, MAPAM's directors' collective efforts led to establishment of emergency planning, preparedness and response protocols for Manitoba's mining industry. They also realized marked industry improvements in safety culture and performance, attributed to the sharing of risk management information and lessons learned among their membered companies. Finally, Graham was avid mountaineer and fisherman, not to mention a great story teller. Coffee breaks, meetings and other gatherings were always good fun! Accounts of his excursions and past work experiences, often injected with safety messaging and a great sense of humour, drew his audience near and attracted anyone within earshot to listen in. On or off-the-job, Graham was a great role model - a devoted, energetic and sincere proponent of personal safety - who inspired others to follow suit. For these reasons, Graham Ennis is a fitting posthumous recipient of the David Barr Award. JoAnne Nelson, a 30-year veteran of the British Columbia Geological Survey, is being acknowledged with a Special Tribute for her significant contributions to the advancement of geoscientific knowledge relating to the tectonics, structural geology and metallogeny of the Northern Cordillera. Over this time span she has developed an outstanding geoscience reputation coupled with major contributions as a project leader, mentor and communicator. JoAnne was raised in the western United States where she initially became fascinated with rocks as a young teenager, during a mountaineering course at Yosemite National Park. Following completion of high school she went on to earn B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in geology at the University of Washington and at the University of British Columbia, in 1973 and 1976, respectively. While at UBC she also earned a B.Ed. degree, and later taught high school science on Haida Gwaii followed by sessional lecturing in geology at UBC and at Douglas College between 1978 and 1985. During this period, she also worked as a field geologist with Resource Associates of Alaska, and did some contract petrography for Vancouver Petrographics. Since joining the BCGS in 1986, JoAnne has conducted extensive field mapping and related geological studies throughout British Columbia, with a primary focus on the tectonics and metallogeny of the northwestern part of the province. She has also developed expertise in aspects of the evolution of the B.C.-Yukon-Alaskan Cordillera as a whole. Her current project, as Northwestern BC Manager, involves structural and geochronological studies of the Mesozoic porphyry-epithermal belt known as the Golden Triangle. Throughout her career, JoAnne has successfully interwoven the complex geology of the Cordillera with the wealth of mineral deposits it contains. She understands that this process is best done by also incorporating knowledge developed by industry geologists and prospectors. To this end, she meets with them in their offices and in the field, uses their reports, and engages with them at conferences. Her charisma and enthusiastic presentations at technical conferences and at regional community meetings have informed and inspired a broad spectrum of explorers, researchers, students and the general public. JoAnne's accomplishments were formally recognized in 2013 when she was listed in the top 100 Global Inspirational Women in Mining by the United Kingdom's Standard Bank. Additionally, in 2015, she was presented with the Gold Pick Award by the Kamloops Exploration Group (KEG) in recognition of "outstanding services and contributions to the minerals industry". AME is pleased to add to these accolades by awarding her the 2016 Special Tribute. Susan Craig is recognized with the Gold Pan Award for her exceptional meritorious service to the mineral exploration community through AME. Susan has more than a decade of experience supporting AME. She served as co-chair of the Mineral Exploration Roundup committee in 2009 and 2010, and was chair in 2011, when attendance at AME's Roundup conference first exceeded 7,000 participants. In 2004, she joined the First Nations & Community Relations Committee, and to this day serves on its successor, the Aboriginal Relations Committee. Susan has served on AME's Board of Directors from 2005 to 2008, and since 2014. She was a co-recipient of the inaugural 2007 Robert R. Hedley Award for Excellence in Social and Environmental Responsibility. Outside of AME, Susan has been Chair of the Yukon Minerals Advisory Group and is a director of the Yukon Chamber of Mines. The Frank Woodside Past Presidents and Past Chairs Award is presented to three individuals for their distinguished service to AME. Barbara Caelles graduated with a B.Sc. in Geology from the University of British Columbia, and has worked in the mining industry for more than 40 years. She started her career in exploration as a field geologist, but eventually turned to consulting in records management for mining in order to have a more balanced lifestyle. Barbara has been involved in women's groups since she was appointed in 1975 to the Women Geoscientists Committee in 1975, of which she became Chair in 1977. Barbara is a founding member of Women in Mining British Columbia (formerly known as Women in Mining Vancouver), sits on the executive of the Greater Vancouver Mining Women's Association, and was part of the BC HR Task Force, Diversity-Women Sub-committee. In 2010 Barbara received the Minerva Foundation's Women in Natural Resources Award for Philanthropy and Volunteerism, and was recognized as a Life Member by AME in 2015. Alex Christopher joined Teck's Exploration Group in 1984 and was appointed Senior Vice President, Exploration, Projects & Technical Services in July 2016. He previously held the position of Vice President, Exploration, and has held a number of positions in the company within Exploration, Exploration Business Development and Corporate Development. Alex holds a B.Sc. (Honours) degree in Geology from McMaster University and an Environmental Biology Technology Diploma from Canadore College. Alex is also on the Board of Directors of the Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada ("PDAC") and is a Director of Horizonte Minerals Plc. Alex has served on the AME's Finance & Audit Committee since 2006, and served as a Director from 2006 through 2009. Diane Gregory has a career that ranges from being the geologist and lands manager for Murray Pezim's Prime Explorations Ltd. during the Eskay Creek staking rush to being a land manager with The Claim Group Inc., a mineral tenure management company. Diane was part of the Land Use Committee of AME and Lands Committee of the PDAC several years during the late 1990s and early 2000s. As a Land and Contracts Manager with Kennecott Exploration Canada Inc., Diane sat at the Cassiar-Iskut-Stikine land use for two years and reported to AME regarding the deliberations. Along with Barbara Caelles, Diane was a founding member of Women in Mining British Columbia (formerly known as Women in Mining Vancouver). Diane was previously recognized as a Life Member by AME in 2012. Britannia Mine Museum is granted $10,000 to assist and support the Museum's Educational Program that is focused on earth science programs and events for students. These programs are attended annually by 10,000 students. The 2016 programs focused on the themes of What Use Are Minerals To Me?, Mineral Diversity Up Close and The Bigger Picture XL, a critical thinking game related to operating a mining company for the Grades 5 to 6 students. The inaugural DIG Day-Delving into Geoscience, an activity dealing with plate tectonics, volcanoes, minerals, rocks and fossils was featured during spring break.The educational initiatives for 2017 will focus on developing exhibits on carbon and carbon innovations, enhancing activities associated with DIG Day-Delving into Geoscience with a focus on geological events related to the origin of the Britannia copper deposits. Also, a permanent display of the hydrothermal Black Smoker chimney specimens from the Juan de Fuca Ridge will be developed at the Mineral Gallery of the Beaty - Lundin Visitor Centre. All programs and activities will be coordinated with the primary objective of supporting and assisting the teachers for educating students on geological science. Mineral Resources Education Program of BC (MineralsEd) is granted $10,000 for coordinating the Kids & Rocks hands-on classroom workshop in 2017 for children and students in Kindergarten to Grade 3 in the Lower Mainland schools of BC. A complementary version of the Kids & Rocks program, tentatively referred to as Kids & Rocks 5, will be introduced for Grade 4 to 6 classes. The main objective of Kids & Rocks program is to introduce children to the basic properties of various rocks and minerals and how they are utilized to benefit our lives. The kids are provided with a bag of about 25 rocks and minerals, a hand lens, hardness kit, streak plate, magnet and flashlight to experience and learn the basic physical properties of their specimens. As the children advance, they are introduced on how our daily lives are dependent on earth's non-renewable resources. The more advanced Kids & Rocks 5 program will challenge the students to identify "blind" mineral and rock samples by way of examining, recognizing and recording specific physical properties to identify the mineral specimens; and for rocks, determining whether it is an igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rock. The Kids & Rocks project is an important stepping stone for our current and future mineral exploration industry.