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New Westminster, Canada

Gamage B.,A+ Network | Schall V.,Douglas College | Grant J.,Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute | Grant J.,University of British Columbia
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2012

Background: Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical, although often neglected, part of long-term care (LTC) management. Little is known about what IPC resources are available for LTC and how that impacts patient care and safety. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight LTC facilities were randomly selected out of all British Columbia facilities and surveyed using a validated survey tool. The tool was used to collect data regarding IPC resources grouped within 6 indices: (1) leadership, (2) infection control professionals (ICP) coverage, (3) policies and procedures, (4) support through partnerships, (5) surveillance, and (6) control activities. All components measured have been identified as key for an effective IPC program. Survey responses were used to calculate scores for IPC programs as a whole and for each of the 6 indices. Results: Of 188 randomly selected facilities, 86 institutions participated. Facilities were compared by region, funding source, and ICP coverage. Overall, LTC facilities lacked IPC leadership, especially physician support. Having no dedicated ICP was associated with poorer scores on all indices. Only 41% of practicing ICPs had more than 2 years experience, and only 14% were professionally certified. Twenty-two percent of ICPs had additional roles within the institution, and 44% had additional roles outside of the institution. Thirty-five percent of institutions had no IPC dedicated budget. Discussion: LTC institutions - with bed numbers exceeding those in acute care - represent an important aspect of health services. These data show that many LTC facilities lack the necessary resources to provide quality infection control programs. © 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Rickards K.J.C.,University of Guelph | Rickards K.J.C.,Douglas College | Boulding E.G.,University of Guelph
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2015

Animals living in intertidal habitats experience high temperatures and low humidity during emersion that represent extreme deviations from those experienced during immersion; some use behaviour to ameliorate these stressors. We made in situ observations of 3 behaviours displayed by the Pacific intertidal snail Littorina subrotundata on 3 exposed rocky intertidal shores in the northeast Pacific: microhabitat selection, activity level, and conspecific aggregation. We hypothesized that these behaviours might be altered in response to temperature and/or humidity at a particular time during tidal emersion. We used the Akaike information criterion to compare a set of models for each of the 3 behaviours that included combinations of substrate temperature (Ts), vapour pressure deficit (VPD) (which encompasses humidity), emersion time, snail shell width (Size), and study site (Site) as the independent variables. The best supported model of microhabitat selection in the summers of 2011 and 2012 used only the independent variables Site and Size. The best supported model of activity included both Ts and VPD in 2011 but included only Ts in 2012; increased Ts resulted in decreased activity. None of the models in the set explained much of the variance in conspecific aggregation. We conclude an alternate cue for microhabitat selection is likely in this system and suggest that biogenic refuges created by barnacles are a likely driver. Our findings also suggest that thermal stress during emersion is the primary cue that informs the snails to reduce their activity. © Inter-Research 2015.

Hood R.,Kingston University | Gillespie J.,University of British Columbia | Davies J.,Douglas College
Journal of Interprofessional Care | Year: 2016

It is increasingly accepted that practitioners across a range of professional fields must work together in order to promote children’s welfare and protect them from harm. However, it has also become apparent that interprofessional working is a challenging area of practice that cannot simply be prescribed through protocols and procedures, nor acquired as a set of technical competences. This article develops the concept of interprofessional expertise in order to explain how practitioners become more proficient at working with others to manage complex child welfare issues. Key principles are outlined with reference to relevant theoretical frameworks, including models of skill acquisition. The article concludes by discussing some potential implications for future research and contemporary developments in child safeguarding practice. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Clasen J.L.,University of British Columbia | Clasen J.L.,Douglas College | Shurin J.B.,University of British Columbia | Shurin J.B.,University of California at San Diego
Ecology | Year: 2015

Bacteria are ubiquitous and important components of marine ecosystems, yet the interaction between bacteria and higher trophic levels remain poorly understood. The trophic cascade involving sea otters, urchins, and kelp in the North Pacific is a classic case of altered ecosystem states; however, its impacts on microbial communities are unknown. We investigated the response of microbial communities to variation in kelp abundance between regions with and without sea otter populations along the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We compared bacterial community structure and function between regions with large and small kelp forests, including an subset of the bacterial community that produces alginate lyase, which allows direct utilization of kelp carbon. The abundance and activity of alginate-lyase-producing bacteria were 3.2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively, in the region with large kelp forests, and declined rapidly with increasing distance from kelp. Total bacterial abundance was 2.7 times greater, and bacteria grew faster and experienced more zooplankton grazing and viral-mediated mortality in the presence of large kelp forests. These patterns suggest that larger kelp forests produce more detritus and dissolved organic matter, which stimulate microbial activity. Our results indicate that variation in kelp forest size alters the community structure and productivity of microbes and contributes to the growing evidence that top predators interact with microbes and ecosystem processes through a cascade of indirect effects. © 2015 by the Ecological Society of America.

Gile G.H.,University of British Columbia | James E.R.,University of British Columbia | Scheffrahn R.H.,University of Florida | Carpenter K.J.,University of British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2011

Calonymphids are a group of multinucleate, multiflagellate protists belonging to the order Cristamonadida (Parabasalia) that are found exclusively in the hindgut of termites from the family Kalotermitidae. Despite their impressive morphological complexity and diversity, few species have been formally described and fewer still have been characterized at the molecular level. In this study, four novel species of calonymphids were isolated and characterized: Calonympha chia and Snyderella yamini spp. nov., from Neotermes castaneus and Calcaritermes nearcticus from Florida, USA, and Snyderella kirbyi and Snyderella swezyae, spp. nov., from Calcaritermes nigriceps and Cryptotermes cylindroceps from Colombia. Each of these species was distinguished from its congeners by residing in a distinct host and by differences at the molecular level. Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit (SSU) rDNA indicated that the genera Calonympha and Stephanonympha were probably not monophyletic, though the genus Snyderella, previously only represented by one sequence in molecular analyses, appeared with these new data to be monophyletic. This was in keeping with the traditional evolutionary view of the group in which the morphology of the genus Snyderella is considered to be derived, while that of the genus Stephanonympha is ancestral and therefore probably plesiomorphic. © 2011 IUMS.

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