Kyoto, Japan
Kyoto, Japan

Doshisha University , also referred to as Dodai , is a private university in Kyoto City, Japan. Established in 1875, it is one of the oldest private institutions of higher learning in Japan, and has approximately 30,000 students enrolled on four different campuses in Kyoto. It is one of the Japanese "Global 30" universities and one of the "Kankandoritsu," a group of the four leading private universities in the Kansai region of western Japan.Doshisha was founded by Joseph Hardy Neesima as "Doshisha English School", and in 1920 it was granted university status. The university now encompasses 14 faculties and 16 graduate schools with numerous affiliated institutions including Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts. Wikipedia.

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Exercise has numerous health-promoting effects in humans; however, individual responsiveness to exercise with regard to endurance or metabolic health differs markedly. This 'exercise resistance' is considered to be congenital, with no evident acquired causative factors. Here we show that the anti-oxidative hepatokine selenoprotein P (SeP) causes exercise resistance through its muscle receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 1 (LRP1). SeP-deficient mice showed a 'super-endurance' phenotype after exercise training, as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ coactivator (Ppargc)-1α (also known as PGC-1α; encoded by Ppargc1a) expression in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced ROS production and the endurance capacity in SeP-deficient mice. SeP treatment impaired hydrogen-peroxide-induced adaptations through LRP1 in cultured myotubes and suppressed exercise-induced AMPK phosphorylation and Ppargc1a gene expression in mouse skeletal muscle—effects which were blunted in mice with a muscle-specific LRP1 deficiency. Furthermore, we found that increased amounts of circulating SeP predicted the ineffectiveness of training on endurance capacity in humans. Our study suggests that inhibitors of the SeP–LRP1 axis may function as exercise-enhancing drugs to treat diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Yokoyama N.,Kyoto University | Takaoka M.,Doshisha University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

A variety of statistically steady energy spectra in elastic wave turbulence have been reported in numerical simulations, experiments, and theoretical studies. Focusing on the energy levels of the system, we perform direct numerical simulations according to the Föppl-von Kármán equation, and successfully reproduce the variability of the energy spectra by changing the magnitude of external force systematically. When the total energies in wave fields are small, the energy spectra are close to a statistically steady solution of the kinetic equation in the weak turbulence theory. On the other hand, in large-energy wave fields, another self-similar spectrum is found. The coexistence of the weakly nonlinear spectrum in large wave numbers and the strongly nonlinear spectrum in small wave numbers is also found in moderate energy wave fields. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Tsukagoshi K.,Doshisha University
Analytical Sciences | Year: 2014

The author herein reviews a specific microfluidic behavior exhibited by mixed-solvent solutions in a microspace, coined as the tube radial distribution phenomenon (TRDP). The specific fluidic behavior was observed in the following solution systems: ternary water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvents, water-surfactant, water-ionic liquid, and fluorous/organic solvents. When the mixed homogeneous solutions were delivered into a microspace under certain conditions, the solvent molecules were radially distributed in the microspace, generating inner and outer phases with a kinetic liquid-liquid interface. The TRDP was fundamentally evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, phase diagrams construction, and the elution behaviors of solutes in a capillary tube. A TRDP-based capillary chromatography, referred to as tube radial distribution chromatography (TRDC), where the outer phase serves as a pseudo-stationary phase under laminar flow conditions, has been developed as one of the applications of TRDP. We have also investigated TRDP-based extraction, chemical reaction, and mixing processes, coined as tube radial distribution extraction (TRDE), tube radial distribution reaction (TRDR), and tube radial distribution mixing (TRDM), respectively. The concept and experimentalfindings regarding TRDP, TRDC, TRDE, TRDR, and TRDM are described in this review. © 2014 The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.

Watanabe K.,Doshisha University | Kitagishi H.,Doshisha University | Kano K.,Doshisha University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

A real life saver: A supramolecule (met-hemoCD3, see scheme) was prepared by including a water-soluble porphinato iron(III) in a capsule of a cyclodextrin dimer (Py3OCD), which was synthesized in only two steps. The structure of met-hemoCD3 was determined by X-ray crystal analysis (see picture). Ferrous hemoCD3 showed functions similar to those of hemoglobin/myoglobin and also functioned as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Egashira Y.,Doshisha University | Takase M.,Doshisha University | Takamori S.,Doshisha University
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

During synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling, the vacuolar-type H+ ATPase creates a proton electrochemical gradient (ΔμH+) that drives neurotransmitter loading into SVs. Given the low estimates of free luminal protons, it has been envisioned that the influx of a limited number of protons suffices to establish ΔμH+. Consistent with this, the time constant of SV re-acidification was reported to be <5 s, much faster than glutamate loading (τ of ̴15 s) and thus unlikely to be rate limiting for neurotransmitter loading. However, such estimates have relied on pHluorin-based probes that lack sensitivity in the lower luminal pH range. Here, we reexamined re-acidification kinetics using the mOrange2-based probe that should report theSVpHmore accurately. In recordings from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, we found that re-acidification took substantially longer(τ of ̴15 s) than estimated previously. In addition, we found that theSV lumen exhibited a large buffering capacity (̴̴ 57mM/pH), corresponding to an accumulation of1200 protons during re-acidification. Together, our results uncover hitherto unrecognized robust proton influx and storage in SVs that can restrict the rate of neurotransmitter refilling. © 2015 the authors.

Nishikawa K.,Doshisha University
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis | Year: 2011

Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7, causes bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis in humans, occasionally resulting in fatal systemic complications, such as neurological damage and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because Stx is a major virulence factor of the infectious disease, a series of Shiga toxin neutralizers with various structural characteristics has been developed as promising therapeutic agents. Most of these agents function to bind to the toxin directly and inhibit the binding to its receptor present on the target cells. Other neutralizers do not inhibit receptor binding but induce aberrant intracellular transport of the toxin, resulting in effective detoxification. Such a novel type of Stx neutralizer provides a new therapeutic strategy against STEC infections. Here, recent progress of the development of Stx neutralizers is reviewed. © 2011 L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy.

Saito Y.,Doshisha University
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Parkinson's disease is a progressive, age-related, neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress is an important mediator in its pathogenesis. DJ-1 is a causative gene of a familial form of Parkinson's disease, namely PARK7, and plays a significant role in antioxidative defense to protect the cells from oxidative stress. DJ-1 undergoes preferential oxidation at the cysteine residue at position 106, Cys-106, under oxidative stress. The critical role of Cys-106 in the biological function of DJ-1 has been demonstrated, and recent studies indicate that DJ-1 acts as a sensor of oxidative stress by regulating the gene expression of antioxidative defense. Specific antibodies against Cys-106-oxidized DJ-1 have been developed, and the generation of oxidized DJ-1 in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease has been investigated. This review focuses on the role of DJ-1 in antioxidative defense and the importance of oxidizable Cys-106 in its function. The signifi- cance of the identification of early-phase Parkinson's disease biomarkers and the nature of oxidized DJ-1 as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease are discussed here. ©2014 JCBN.

Kouzu M.,Doshisha University | Hidaka J.-S.,Doshisha University
Fuel | Year: 2012

Vegetable oil is one of the biomass resources generated from carbon dioxide and water with the aid of photosynthesis, and is converted into an alternative to fossil diesel fuel by transesterifying with methanol. The eco-friendly fuel, termed as "Biodiesel", is manufactured with the help of alkali hydroxide, but its homogeneous catalysis gives rise to some technological problems: a massive amount of wastewater, soap formation and so on. Therefore, much interest has been taken in utilizing the heterogeneous catalysis of solid base for biodiesel production. Calcium oxide (CaO) is a candidate for the solid base catalyst from an economical point of view. In the present work, we reviewed CaO catalyst for the vegetable oil transesterification on the basis of a variety of the concerning research papers. After catalytic properties of the basic sites generated on CaO were described preliminarily, a mechanism on the vegetable oil transesterification catalyzed by CaO was explained. Then, procedure to prepare the active CaO catalyst, its deactivation occurring under the reacting condition and modification of CaO catalyst were discussed. Finally, the practical use of CaO catalyst for industrial biodiesel production was studied with pointing out the required future works. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hanabusa K.,Doshisha University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to show the influence of the 107th OPEC Ordinary Meeting (meeting) and investigates the relationships between oil prices and economic activities, using an exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) and a vector autoregressive (VAR) model from 1991 to 2008 in Japan. We find that levels and volatilities of oil prices increase after the meeting. We examine the effects of it on Japanese economic activities, employing a Granger-causality test and data before and after it. The empirical result reveals that each price of regular gasoline and diesel has information to be useful to predict the economy after the meeting. On the other hand, volatilities of regular gasoline and diesel price have information to predict the inflation and economic growth before the meeting, respectively. After the meeting, however, these volatilities change to be useful to predictive both inflation and economic growth. Thus, we conclude that the decision of meeting is related to not only the domestic oil prices, but also the macroeconomy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kawaguchi S.-Y.,Doshisha University | Sakaba T.,Doshisha University
Neuron | Year: 2015

An axon is thought to faithfully conduct action potentials to its terminals. However, many features of the axon and axon terminals, especially at inhibitory synapses, remain unknown. By directly recording from the axon and terminal of a cultured cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC), we demonstrate that low membrane excitability of axon terminals shapes synaptic output. Simultaneous measurements of presynaptic capacitance and evoked IPSCs revealed PC axon terminals contained large readily releasable synaptic vesicles that exhibited a low release probability. Nevertheless, IPSCs evoked by stimulating a PC soma underwent frequency-dependent depression. Direct axonal recordings showed that high-frequency action potentials were faithfully conducted over axonal bifurcations but were attenuated around terminals. Sparse Na+ channels relative to enriched voltage-gated K+ channels in terminals caused short-term depression of IPSCs by reducing Ca2+ influx. Together with confirmation in slice recordings, our findings reveal a presynaptic mechanism that shapes short-term synaptic depression without depleting releasable vesicles. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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