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Bark D.L.,Colorado State University | Dasi L.P.,Dorothy Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute
Annals of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2015

We examine the influence of the added mass effect (fluid inertia) on mitral valve leaflet stress during isovolumetric phases. To study this effect, oscillating flow is applied to a flexible membrane at various frequencies to control inertia. Resulting membrane strain is calculated through a three-dimensional reconstruction of markers from stereo images. To investigate the effect in vivo, the analysis is repeated on a published dataset for an ovine mitral valve (Journal of Biomechanics 42(16): 2697–2701). The membrane experiment demonstrates that the relationship between pressure and strain must be corrected with a fluid inertia term if the ratio of inertia to pressure differential approaches 1. In the mitral valve, this ratio reaches 0.7 during isovolumetric contraction for an acceleration of 6 m/s2. Acceleration is reduced by 72% during isovolumetric relaxation. Fluid acceleration also varies along the leaflet during isovolumetric phases, resulting in spatial variations in stress. These results demonstrate that fluid inertia may be the source of the temporally and spatially varying stiffness measurements previously seen through inverse finite element analysis of in vivo data during isovolumetric phases. This study demonstrates that there is a need to account for added mass effects when analyzing in vivo constitutive relationships of heart valves. © 2015 Biomedical Engineering Society

Bark D.L.,Colorado State University | Vahabi H.,Colorado State University | Bui H.,Colorado State University | Movafaghi S.,Colorado State University | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2016

In this study, we explore how blood-material interactions and hemodynamics are impacted by rendering a clinical quality 25 mm St. Jude Medical Bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) superhydrophobic (SH) with the aim of reducing thrombo-embolic complications associated with BMHVs. Basic cell adhesion is evaluated to assess blood-material interactions, while hemodynamic performance is analyzed with and without the SH coating. Results show that a SH coating with a receding contact angle (CA) of 160° strikingly eliminates platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the surface. Alternatively, many platelets attach to and activate on pyrolytic carbon (receding CA = 47), the base material for BMHVs. We further show that the performance index increases by 2.5% for coated valve relative to an uncoated valve, with a maximum possible improved performance of 5%. Both valves exhibit instantaneous shear stress below 10 N/m2 and Reynolds Shear Stress below 100 N/m2. Therefore, a SH BMHV has the potential to relax the requirement for antiplatelet and anticoagulant drug regimens typically required for patients receiving MHVs by minimizing blood-material interactions, while having a minimal impact on hemodynamics. We show for the first time that SH-coated surfaces may be a promising direction to minimize thrombotic complications in complex devices such as heart valves. © 2016 Biomedical Engineering Society

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