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Zavadzkas J.A.,Medical University of South Carolina | Stroud R.E.,Medical University of South Carolina | Bouges S.,Medical University of South Carolina | Mukherjee R.,Medical University of South Carolina | And 6 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2014

Rationale: Myocardial infarction (MI) causes an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and is associated with adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling. A uniform reduction in TIMP-4 post-MI has been observed. OBJECTIVE:: To examine post-MI remodeling with cardiac-restricted overexpression of TIMP-4, either through a transgenic or viral delivery approach. METHODS AND RESULTS:: MI was induced in mice and then randomized to targeted injection of an adenoviral construct (10 μL; 8×10 plaque forming units/mL) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the full-length human TIMP-4 (Ad-GFP-TIMP4) or GFP. A transgenic construct with cardiac-restricted overexpression TIMP-4 (hTIMP-4exp) was used in a parallel set of studies. LV end-diastolic volume, an index of LV remodeling, increased by >60% from baseline at 5 days post-MI and by >100% at 21 days post-MI in the Ad-GFP only group. However, LV dilation was reduced by â‰̂50% in both the Ad-GFP-TIMP4 and hTIMP-4exp groups at these post-MI time points. LV ejection fraction was improved with either Ad-GFP-TIMP-4 or hTIMP-4exp. Fibrillar collagen expression and content were increased within the MI region with both TIMP-4 interventions, suggestive of matrix stabilization. CONCLUSIONS:: This study is the first to demonstrate that selective myocardial targeting for TIMP-4 induction through either a viral or transgenic approach favorably altered the course of adverse LV remodeling post-MI. Thus, localized induction of endogenous matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as TIMP-4, holds promise as a means to interrupt the progression of post-MI remodeling. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Jean-Louis G.,New York University | Williams N.J.,New York University | Sarpong D.,Jackson State University | Pandey A.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Epidemiologic studies show a curvilinear relationship between inadequate sleep (< 7 or > 8 hours) and obesity (Body Mass Index > 30 kg/m2), which have enormous public health impact. Methods. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, an ongoing nationally representative cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults (≥18 years) (1977 through 2009), we examined the hypothesis that inadequate sleep is independently related to overweight/obesity, with adjustment for socio-demographic, health risk, and medical factors. Self- reported data on health risks, physician-diagnosed medical conditions, sleep duration, and body weight and height were used. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 31.2% to 36.9% and 10.2% to 27.7%, respectively. Whereas prevalence of very short sleep (<5 hours) and short sleep (5-6 hours) has increased from 1.7% to 2.4% and from 19.7% to 26.7%, it decreased from 11.6% to 7.8% for long sleep. According to multivariate-adjusted multinomial regression analyses, odds of overweight and obesity associated with very short sleep and short sleep increased significantly from 1977 to 2009. Odds of overweight and obesity conferred by long sleep did not show consistent and significant increases over the years. Analyses based on aggregated data showed very short sleepers had 30% greater odds of being overweight or were twice as likely to be obese, relative to 7-8 hour sleepers. Likewise, short sleepers had 20% greater odds of being overweight or 57% greater odds of being obese. Long sleepers had 20% greater odds of being obese, but no greater odds of being overweight. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that prevalence of very short and short sleep has gradually increased over the last 32 years. Inadequate sleep was associated with overweight and obesity for each available year. © 2014 Jean-Louis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ginsberg J.P.,Dorn Medical Center | Ginsberg J.P.,University of South Carolina | Holbrook J.R.,University of South Carolina | Chanda D.,University of South Carolina | And 2 more authors.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Purpose Relatively little is known about psychological effects of environmental hazard disasters. This study examines the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and tendency to limited panic attack after a large chlorine spill in a community. Methods In January 2005, a large chlorine spill occurred in Graniteville, SC. Acute injuries were quantified on an ordinal severity scale. Eight to ten months later, participating victims completed the Short Screening Scale for PTSD (n = 225) and the Holden Psychological Screening Inventory (HPSI) (n = 193) as part of a public health intervention. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity were likewise measured via spirometry. Two sets of univariate logistic regression models were fit to detect independent effects of each potential covariate and risk factor on PTS score and tendency to panic. A supplemental analysis examined whether poor lung function may be a confounder and/or effect modifier of the effect of acute injury on PTS score and panic. Results Of those who completed psychological screening, 36.9% exhibited PTS symptoms. FEV1, acute injury, and the HPSI psychiatric subscale were independently associated with increased PTS score. Acute injury severity scale and female sex were associated with tendency to panic. Immediate acute injury severity and poor lung function later were independently associated with PTS symptomotology. Conclusions The high prevalence of PTS and endorsement of tendency to panic within our sample show a need for mental health treatment after a chemical hazard disaster. Mental health personnel should be considerate of those with serious physical injuries. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Iftikhar I.H.,University of South Carolina | Kline C.E.,University of Pittsburgh | Youngstedt S.D.,University of South Carolina | Youngstedt S.D.,Dorn Medical Center
Lung | Year: 2014

Background: Several studies have shown a favorable effect of supervised exercise training on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the data from these studies on the severity of OSA (primary outcome) in adults. Secondary outcomes of interest included body mass index (BMI), sleep efficiency, daytime sleepiness and cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: Two independent reviewers searched PubMed and Embase (from inception to March 6, 2013) to identify studies on the effects of supervised exercise training in adults with OSA. Pre- and postexercise training data on our primary and secondary outcomes were extracted. Results: A total of 5 studies with 6 cohorts that enrolled a total of 129 study participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate of mean pre- to postintervention (exercise) reduction in AHI was -6.27 events/h (95 % confidence interval [CI] -8.54 to -3.99; p < 0.001). The pooled estimates of mean changes in BMI, sleep efficiency, Epworth sleepiness scale and VO2 peak were -1.37 (95 % CI -2.81 to 0.07; p = 0.06), 5.75 % (95 % CI 2.47-9.03; p = 0.001), -3.3 (95 % CI -5.57 to -1.02; p = 0.004), and 3.93 mL/kg/min (95 % CI 2.44-5.42; p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: This meta-analysis shows a statistically significant effect of exercise in reducing the severity of sleep apnea in patients with OSA with minimal changes in body weight. Additionally, the significant effects of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness, daytime sleepiness, and sleep efficiency indicate the potential value of exercise in the management of OSA. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Wirth M.D.,University of South Carolina | Burch J.,University of South Carolina | Burch J.,Dorn Medical Center | Shivappa N.,University of South Carolina | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: Shift workers are affected by diet- and inflammation-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. We examined a dietary inflammatory index (DII) in relation to shift work from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005 to 2010). METHODS: The DII was calculated using data from a 24-hour dietary recall. Shift work categories included day workers, evening/night shift workers, or rotating shift workers. General linear models were fit to examine the relationship between shift work and adjusted mean DII values. RESULTS: Among all shift workers and specifically rotating shift workers, higher (ie, more pro-inflammatory) mean DII scores (1.01 and 1.07 vs 0.86; both P ≤ 0.01) were observed compared with day workers. Women tended to express strong evening/night shift effects. CONCLUSIONS: More proinflammatory diets observed among shift workers may partially explain increased inflammation-related chronic disease risk observed in other studies among shift workers compared with their day-working counterparts. © 2014 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Source

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