Brochet A.-L.,BirdLife International |
Van Den Bossche W.,Downing Street |
Jbour S.,BirdLife Middle East Regional Office |
Ndang'Ang'A P.K.,BirdLife Africa Partnership Secretariat |
And 47 more authors.
Bird Conservation International | Year: 2016
Illegal killing/taking of birds is a growing concern across the Mediterranean. However, there are few quantitative data on the species and countries involved. We assessed numbers of individual birds of each species killed/taken illegally in each Mediterranean country per year, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. We estimated that 11-36 million individuals per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region, many of them on migration. In each of Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, Lebanon and Syria, more than two million birds may be killed/taken on average each year. For species such as Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, Common Quail Coturnix coturnix, Eurasian Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, House Sparrow Passer domesticus and Song Thrush Turdus philomelos, more than one million individuals of each species are estimated to be killed/taken illegally on average every year. Several species of global conservation concern are also reported to be killed/taken illegally in substantial numbers: Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca and Rock Partridge Alectoris graeca. Birds in the Mediterranean are illegally killed/taken primarily for food, sport and for use as cage-birds or decoys. At the 20 worst locations with the highest reported numbers, 7.9 million individuals may be illegally killed/taken per year, representing 34% of the mean estimated annual regional total number of birds illegally killed/taken for all species combined. Our study highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing/taking of birds. Monitoring schemes which use systematic sampling protocols are needed to generate increasingly robust data on trends in illegal killing/taking over time and help stakeholders prioritise conservation actions to address this international conservation problem. Large numbers of birds are also hunted legally in the region, but specific totals are generally unavailable. Such data, in combination with improved estimates for illegal killing/taking, are needed for robustly assessing the sustainability of exploitation of birds. © 2015 BirdLife International.
De Groot M.,DOPPS BirdLife Slovenia |
De Groot M.,Slovenian National Institute of Biology |
Kmecl P.,DOPPS BirdLife Slovenia |
Figelj A.,DOPPS BirdLife Slovenia |
And 3 more authors.
Ardeola | Year: 2010
The habitat selection of the ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana has been examined on multiple spatial scales. Habitat variables of territories and random points were measured in the field on a 25 m radius and from GIS layers on scales of 25 m, 100 m, 500 m and 1,000 m radius. Habitat variables were analysed by a generalized linear model. The ortolan bunting was found on a 25 m radius in areas with a few black pines, with low grass and open patches within the herbaceous layer. On a 100 m radius scale, the probability of occurrence was highest in areas with meadows with large trees, permanent and partly overgrown meadows, and small areas of forests. On a 500 m radius scale, the occurrence of the ortolan bunting was negatively affected by urban areas and their infrastructure and by forests, and positively by partly overgrown meadows and permanent meadows with or without large trees. On a 1,000 m radius, permanent meadows with or without large trees, and the absence of large urban areas and infrastructure positively affected the presence of the ortolan bunting. In conclusion, factors influencing habitat selection by the ortolan bunting differ according to spatial scale. On the territorial level, its presence was only influenced by cover of open and partly overgrown meadows and by forest, while on larger scales it was also affected by the cover of urban areas. Factors influence habitat selection differently on different scales; a forest influences the probability of a territory positively on a small scale while negatively on larger scales. Factors influencing the habitat selection positively on a larger scale are becoming less common and therefore fewer suitable sites are available for the ortolan bunting in Kras.