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Baume N.,University of Geneva | Geyer H.,German Sport University Cologne | Vouillamoz M.,European Union | Grisdale R.,European Union | And 14 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2016

Testosterone and related compounds are the most recurrent doping substances. The steroid profile, consisting of the quantification of testosterone and its metabolites, has been described as the most significant biomarker to detect doping with pseudo-endogenous anabolic steroids. The steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was launched by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 2014. To assess the value of introducing the module to its anti-doping programme, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) decided to analyze retrospectively the steroid profile data of 4195 urine samples, collected from 879 male football players and analyzed in 12 WADA-accredited laboratories between 2008 and mid-2013. This study focused on the evaluation of T/E ratios. The coefficient of variation (CV) and the adaptive model were the two statistical models used to study the longitudinal follow-up. A CV of 46% was determined to be the maximal natural intra-individual variation of the T/E when the sequence consisted of single data points analyzed in different laboratories. The adaptive model showed some profiles with an atypical T/E sequence and also enabled an estimate of the prevalence of external factors impacting the T/E sequences. Despite the limitations of this retrospective study, it clearly showed that the longitudinal and individual follow-up of the T/E biomarker of the players is a good tool for target testing in football. UEFA has therefore decided to implement the steroidal module of the ABP from the start of the next European football season in September 2015. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Tsivou M.,Doping Control Laboratory of Athens | Tsivou M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Dimopoulou H.A.,Doping Control Laboratory of Athens | Georgakopoulos D.G.,Agricultural University of Athens | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

The presence of proteolytic enzymes in urine samples, coming from exogenous or endogenous sources, enhances the cleavage of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Moreover, elevated temperatures occurring occasionally during the delayed transportation of sport urine samples, favor the nicking of the hCG molecule. The aim of the current study, funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), was the application of a stabilization mixture in athletes' urine samples to chemically inactivate proteolytic enzymes coming from exogenous or endogenous sources so as to prevent the degradation of hCG. The stabilization mixture applied, already tested for the stabilization of endogenous steroids and recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO), was a combination of antibiotics, antimycotic substances, and protease inhibitors. Incubation experiments were conducted in the presence or absence of the stabilization mixture in urine aliquots spiked with six proteases (first series of experiments) and one microorganism associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) (second series of experiments). Intact hCG levels were evaluated by using the EIAgen Total hCG kit. In the first series of experiments, hCG levels were reduced in the untreated aliquots following incubation at 37 °C. The addition of the chemical stabilization mixture prevented degradation of hCG induced by four of the proteases applied. In the second series of experiments, no significant difference was found in urine inoculated with E. coli, between aliquots treated with chemical mixture and the untreated aliquots. The addition of the proposed chemical stabilization mixture improves the quality of athletes' urine samples against possible deterioration due to high temperatures or attempts of proteolytic manipulation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Tsivou M.,Doping Control Laboratory of Athens | Tsivou M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Dimopoulou H.A.,Doping Control Laboratory of Athens | Leontiou I.-P.,Doping Control Laboratory of Athens | And 4 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Background: The tampering of athlete's urine samples by the addition of proteolytic enzymes during the doping control sampling procedure was reported recently. The aim of the current study, funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), was the application of a stabilization mixture in urine samples to chemically inactivate proteolytic enzymes and improve the electrophoteric signal of erythropoietin (EPO) in human urine. Methods: The stabilization mixture applied was a combination of antibiotics, antimycotic substances and protease inhibitors. A series of incubation experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in the presence and absence of the stabilization mixture in urine aliquots spiked with six proteases. Two different analytical techniques were applied for the qualitative and quantitative EPO measurement: isoelectric focusing (IEF) and chemiluminescent immunoassay respectively. Results: The addition of the chemical stabilization mixture into urine aliquots substantially improved EPO detection in the presence of proteolytic enzymes following incubation at 37 °C or storage at - 20 °C. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that the stabilization of urine prior to the sample collection procedure with the proposed chemical mixture might prove to be a useful tool for the preservation of anti-doping samples. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Tsivou M.,Doping Control Laboratory of Athens | Tsivou M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Georgakopoulos D.G.,Agricultural University of Athens | Dimopoulou H.A.,Doping Control Laboratory of Athens | And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Transportation of doping control urine samples from the collection sites to the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) Accredited Laboratories is conducted under ambient temperatures. When sample delivery is not immediate, microbial contamination of urine, especially in summer, is a common phenomenon that may affect sample integrity and may result in misinterpretation of analytical data. Furthermore, the possibility of intentional contamination of sports samples during collection with proteolytic enzymes, masking the abuse of prohibited proteins such as erythropoietin (EPO) and peptide hormones, is a practice that has already been reported. Consequently, stabilization of urine samples with a suitable method in a way that protects samples' integrity is important. Currently, no stabilization method is applied in the sample collection equipment system in order to prevent degradation of urine compounds. The present work is an overview of a study, funded by WADA, on degradation and stabilization aspects of sports urine samples against the above threats of degradation. Extensive method development resulted in the creation of a mixture of chemical agents for the stabilization of urine. Evaluation of results demonstrated that the stabilization mixture could stabilize endogenous steroids, recombinant EPO, and human chorionic gonadotropin in almost the entire range of the experimental conditions tested. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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