Dehradun, India
Dehradun, India

Doon University is located in the city of Dehradun in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. The university was established by an Act of the Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly in October 2005. The first academic session was started on 9 May 2009. The university follows a semester system with two semesters every year. Wikipedia.

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Singh D.,Doon University | Suthar S.,Doon University
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

The efforts were made in this study to decompose the herbal pharmaceutical industrial waste (HPIW) using earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny) under laboratory conditions. To achieve the objectives HPIW was mixed with cow dung (CD) in different ratios to produce five different waste mixtures for vermicomposting: T 1 - CD (100%), T 2 - HPIW (25%)+CD (75%), T 3 - HPIW (50%)+CD (50%), T 4 - HPIW (75%)+CD (25%) and T 5 - HPIW (100%). Vermicomposting caused significant changes in vermibed characteristics. In all waste mixtures, a decrease in pH, organic C, C:P ratio and C:N ratio, but increase total N, available P and exchangeable K was recorded. C:N ratio of end material (vermicompost) was within the agronomic preferable limit (>15). T 3 and T 4 vermibeds showed better mineralization and waste decomposition rate during vermicomposting. E. fetida produced cocoons in the ranges of 81.0±9.54 (T 1)-306.33±14.31 (T 4) in all vermibeds. Results clearly suggested that vermicomposting could be an efficient technology to convert HPIW into some value-added products for ecological restoration practices. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Suthar S.,Doon University
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

This work illustrates the vermistabilization of milk processing industry wastewater sludge (MPIS) spiked with cow dung (CD) using earthworm Eisenia fetida. A total of four experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P, exchangeable cations (K + and Ca 2+) and extractable trace elements (Fe, Mn and Zn). The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (40%) showed the better mineralization rate as compared to others. The growth and cocoon production in E. fetida was also monitored in all experimental vermibeds. Also, E. fetida showed better growth and reproduction pattern in vermibeds with 40-60% MPIS. At high concentration MPIS caused significant mortality in worms. Results, thus suggested the suitability of vermicomposting for stabilization of noxious milk processing industry sludge. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Suthar S.,Doon University
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

This work illustrates the overview of vermitechnology as sustainable socio-economic venture for rural livelihood in some parts of State Rajasthan, India. The northern part of the State Rajasthan is rich in livestock population and animal husbandry is an integral part of rural livelihood. Traditionally, the livestock excreta which are produced in huge quantity either utilized as rural energy resources or manure in agriculture plots. In recent years, people of this region are utilizing livestock excreta as resources for vermicomposting to convert negligible wastes into some value-added products, i. e. vermicompost and earthworm biomass. The end-product not only valuable in terms of eco-sustainability but also appeared as economic venture for rural farmer communities. The overall scenario of vermitechnology in rural Rajasthan, India is presented by analyzing information collected through systematic studies (field observations, data collection form individual farmers, personal interviews etc.) © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Suthar S.,Doon University | Sharma P.,Doon University
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013

This work illustrates the results of vermicomposting trials of noxious weed - Lantana camara (LL) leaf litter spiked with cow dung (CD) in different ratios (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) using Eisenia fetida. A total of five treatments were established and changes in chemical and microbial properties of vermibeds have been observed for 60 days. In all treatments, a decrease in pH (19.5-30.7%), total organic carbon (TOC) (12-23%) and C:N ratio (25-35%), but increase in ash content (16-40%), total N(Ntot) (11-32%), available phosphorous (Pavail) (445-629%), exchangeable potassium (Kexch) (63-156%) exchangeable calcium (Caexch) (67-94%),and N-NO3 - (164-499%) was recorded. Vermibeds with 40-60% LL (T2 and T3) showed better mineralization rate. The number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes showed 0.33-1.67-fold, 0.72-2.33-fold and 2.03-2.99-fold increase, respectively after vermicomposting process. The germination index (GI) was between 47% and 83% in all vermicomposts as indicated by seed bioassay test. Results thus suggested that Lantana may be a potential source for vermicompost production for sustainable agriculture. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Suthar S.,Doon University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This work illustrates the toxicological impact of pesticide methyl parathion (MP) (dust-2 % active ingredient, a.i.) on growth and reproduction performance in tropical earthworms: Metaphire posthuma (endogeic), Lampito mauritii (anecic) and Allolobophora parva (epigeic). A total of three concentrations (a.i. g kg-1 dry test soil), 1.00 (T 1), 1.125 (T 2) and 2.25 (T 3) of MP, were applied in test substrate to examine the impact on mortality, individual live weight changes and reproduction patterns in test species over 60 days under laboratory conditions. MP caused significant mortality in all tested species, and median lethal dose (LD50) for L. mauritii, M. posthuma and A. parva was 24.85, 23.64 and 22.67 mg a.i., respectively. The individual live weight loss was 27.0-37.0 % in L. mauritii, 36.0-57.1 % in M. posthuma and 1.2-11.0 % in A. parva in different test concentrations. The pesticide-exposed worms produced less cocoons than control, but in L. mauritii, an unusual reproduction (hormesis) was recorded. Results suggested the species-specific toxicity of MP against tropical earthworms. © 2013 Islamic Azad University (IAU).

Tomar P.,Doon University | Suthar S.,Doon University
Desalination | Year: 2011

This work illustrates the potential of a novel vermi-biofiltration system in treatment of urban wastewater. A small-scale vermi-biofiltration reactor was constructed using vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (VSFCWs) aided with local earthworms Perionyx sansibaricus. The coco-grass: Cyprus rotundus (density 0.14 plants/in.2) was used to construct VSFCW. Another reactor without earthworms acted as experimental control. The wastewater was treated through this system for a total of eight repetitive cycles and after each cycle the changes in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NO3 - and PO4 3- of water were measured. Vermi-biofiltration caused significant decrease in level of TSS (88.6%), TDS (99.8%), COD (90%), NO3 - (92.7%) and PO4 3- (98.3%). There were about 38.8, 20.8, 80.6, 50.8 and 144.6% more removal of TSS, TDS, NO3 -, PO4 3- and COD, respectively in vermi-biofiltration than control. Results thus suggested that vermin-biofiltration system is more efficient than VSFCW in terms of contamination removal efficacy. However, this work provides a preliminary idea of using earthworms in wastewater treatment system and further detailed studies are required on some key issues (e.g., loading rate, flow alternation impacts and earthworm stocking density) of this system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Verma R.,Doon University | Suthar S.,Doon University
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014

This work compiles results of utilizing duckweed Lemna gibba L. in sewage wastewater treatment and converting wastewater nutrients into protein and carbohydrate rich weed biomass. A total of four different strengths of wastewater (100, 75, 50 and 25%) were used to build experimental setups and changes in chemical properties of wastewater were measured at the end. L. gibba L. caused a decrease in pH (9-13%), EC (13-26%), NO3 -N (42-64%), SO4 -2 (35-82%), total phosphorus (37-54%), totNa (44-75%), totK (45-76%) and totCa (51-72%). The biomass yield in L. gibba L. ranged between 132.62 and 200.95g/m2day (fresh weight) or 23.87 and 36.17g/m2day (dry weight); about 24.6-36.17% higher than initial level in all experimental setups. The weed biomass was 24.6-52.8% higher than initial level in all set-ups. The yield rate of protein and carbohydrate ranged 1.19-1.95g/m2day (dry weight) and 22.72-35.58g/m2day (dry weight), respectively in duckweed systems. The high carbohydrate and protein yield in L. gibba advocates the utility of the weed in animal feed and bioethanol production. Results suggested that L. gibba can be utilized effectively for designing of a synchronized wastewater treatment and biomass harvesting system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Garg V.K.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Suthar S.,Doon University | Yadav A.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

This paper reports the vermicomposting of food industry sludges (FIS) mixed with different organic wastes employing Eisenia fetida. A total of 10 vermicomposting units containing different wastes combinations were established. After 15 weeks significant increase in total nitrogen (Ntotal) (60-214%), total available phosphorous (Pavail) (35.8-69.6%), total sodium (Natotal) (39-95%), and total potassium (Ktotal) (43.7-74.1%), while decrease in pH (8.45-19.7%), total organic carbon (OCtotal) (28.4-36.1%) and C:N ratio (61.2-77.8%) was recorded. The results indicated that FIS may be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if spiked with other organic wastes in appropriate quantities. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Negi R.,Doon University | Suthar S.,Doon University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Vermistabilization of paper mill wastewater sludge (PMS) spiked with cow dung (CD) at ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% was carried out employing the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. A total of five treatments were established and changes in chemical and microbial properties of mixtures were observed. Vermistabilization caused decreases in total organic carbon, C:N ratio and cellulose by 1.2-1.5, 4.6-14.6, and 2.3-9.7-fold, respectively, but increases in pH, electrical conductivity, ash content, totN, availP, totP, exchK, Ca, Na, and N-NO3- of 1.06-1.11, 1.2-1.6, 1.3-1.6, 3.8-11.5, 4.1-6.5, 5.7-10.3, 1.7-2.0, 1.16-1.24, 1.23-1.45, 4.2-13.4-folds, respectively. PMS with 25-50% of CD showed the maximum mineralization rate. The fungal, bacterial and actinomycetes population increased 2.5-3.71, 3.13-8.96, and 5.71-9.48-fold, respectively after vermistabilization. The high level of plant-available nutrients indicates the suitability of vermistabilized material for agronomic uses. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Efforts were made to decompose herbal pharmaceutical industrial waste (HPIW) spiked with cow dung (CD) using Eisenia fetida. A total of five vermibeds: T 1 - HPIW (0%+CD 100%, control), T 2 - HPIW (25%), T 3 - HPIW (50%), T 4 - HPIW (75%) and T 5 - HPIW (100%) were used for vermicomposting. The changes in biology and chemistry of vermibeds were measured after ten days interval. E. fetida showed high growth and cocoon production rate in all vermibeds. The vermicomposted material contained great population of fungi 6.0-40.6 (CFU×10 5g -1), bacteria 220-1276.0 (CFU×10 8g -1) and actinomycetes 410.0-2962.0 (CFU×10 5g -1) than initial material. Vermicomposted material was rich in plant-available forms of nutrients (N-NO3-,PO43-,availableKandSO4-2). Results suggested that noxious industrial waste can be converted into valuable product for sustainable soil fertility programme. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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