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Rostov-na-Donu, Russia

Kozhemyakov A.P.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Laktionov Yu.V.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Popova T.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Orlova A.G.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | And 6 more authors.
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Herein we summarize the results of a comprehensive study aimed on the creation of liquid form of biological products for symbiotic and associative rhizobacteria. The objects of study were nodule bacteria from the rhizosphere of galegae (Rhizobium galegae), soybean (Bradyrhizobium ja-ponicum) and associative rhizobacteria (Arthrobacter mysorens, Azospirillum brasüense, Agrobacte-rium radiobacter), as well as plants of soybean (Glycine max L.), barley (Hordeum L.), alfalfa (Medicago L.), etc. As carriers for bacteria, we used gamma-sterile peat, Vermiculite and improved sterile liquid media on the basis of components of vegetable or synthetic origin, with the introduction of nutrients and stabilizers (humates, glycerine, potassium sórbate, carboxymethylcellulose, etc.). The efficacy of tested products and forms were compared in a biological survey carried out in different regions of the Russian Federation. Under the conditions of Leningrad Region the effectiveness was evaluated for the preparations based on recently used and perspective strains of alfalfa nodule bacteria Sinorhizobium melüoti. An optimized combination of stabilizers, nutrients and protective sub-strates provided a long-term storage and high efficiency of biological products. Nevertheless, plant nutrient media (bean broth) did not provide the required quality. Using bean medium for cultivation it is possible to obtain the desired titer of bacteria in the product, but their numbers are rapidly decreasing. Furthermore, preparations obtained with use of bean broth lose quality after 2-3 months after the beginning of storage because of extraneous microflora therein. The new forms of biochemicals designed on the basis of a synthetic nutrient medium can be stored at room temperature for at least 6 months, when sterile-packed in plastic bottles. High bacteria titer (3.6-4.2 billion CFU/ml of liquid formulation) was obtained after cultivation. It is shown that an improved liquid form has a high efficiency. Its application on leguminous plants increased grain yield by 20-40 % in soy, and by 15-25 % in peas. Productivity of cereal crops (wheat, barley) increased by 15-25 %, and the productivity of alfalfa was 20-45 % higher. A significant increase in crop quality was found to be due to higher protein content. The effectiveness of biological products considerably depended on agro-ecological conditions and biological features of the crops. Using different strains of nodule bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti in the Leningrad Region allowed us to create the effective plant-microbe systems. Thus on the sod-podzolic soil the strain A-4 was most effective providing yield increase by more than 25 %, while on sod-carbonate soil it was the strain A-5 which increased the productivity of alfalfa by 140 %.

Kalinichenko V.P.,Institute for Soil Fertility in Southern Russia | Sharshak V.K.,Donskoi State Agrarian University | Mironchenko S.F.,Donskoi State Agrarian University | Chernenko V.V.,Donskoi State Agrarian University | And 6 more authors.
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2014

The long-term (30 year) dynamics of a solonetz soil complex composed of solonetzic light chestnut soils and chestnut solonetzes under standard conditions and with the application of agromeliorative measures are considered. When the standard zonal agricultural practice is used, the soils of the solonetzic complex have unfavorable agrophysical, chemical, and physicochemical properties and low productivity. After 30 years of the standard three-level tillage of the soils to a depth of 40-45 cm, the productivity of the biogeocenosis decreased. Thirty years after a single rotary-milling subsoil treatment of the 20- to 45-cm soil layer using a milling tool FS-1.3, there were no morphological features pointing to the restoration of the solonetzic process. The humus content in the 0-to 20-cm and 20-to 40-cm soil layers was 2.3 and 1.7%, respectively; the content of adsorbed Na+ in the 20-to 30-cm layer was 11.6% of the total exchange capacity, or 38% lower than its content in the reference soil. The additional yield reached 30-70% and more of that obtained with the standard agricultural technology used during the whole period under investigation. The method of systems biogeotechnology (systems bio-geo engineering) is proposed as a method for the preventive control of soil evolution and the maintenance of the stability and high productivity of the soil cover. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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