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Kong S.,Nankai University | Lu B.,Nankai University | Bai Z.,Nankai University | Bai Z.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

30 re-suspended dust samples were collected from building surfaces of an oilfield city, then re-suspended through PM2.5, PM10 and PM100 inlets and analyzed for 10 metals including V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Metals concentrations in different fractions and locations were studied. Metals sources were identified by cluster and primary component analysis. The potential risk to human health was assessed by human exposure model. Results showed that Zn, Mn, Pb and Cu were higher in all the three fractions. V, Cr, Mn and Co ranged close to the background values of Chinese soil indicating that they were mainly from crustal materials. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, Co and Cd were higher in old district than that in new district for the three fractions. The PM2.5/PM10, PM10/PM100 and PM2.5/PM100 ratios were higher for Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, As and Cr (all higher than 1.0), and lower for Co, Mn and V (all less than or close to 1.0) which meant that anthropologic sources associated metals were more easily accumulated in finer particles than metals from crustal materials. Spatial variations indicated that the ten metals peaked at surroundings near railway station, gas stations, industrial boilers and machine manufacturing plant implying the influence of local vehicle emission, fossil fuel combustion and industrial activities as well as crustal materials which was verified by cluster analysis and primary component analysis results. Ingestion of dust particles appeared to be the main route of exposure to re-suspended dust. Hazard Indexes of As were both highest for children and adult which could be a potential threat to human health for non-cancer effect and it also exhibited the highest values for cancer effect as 1.01E-06, 7.04E-07 and 7.21E-07 for PM2.5, PM10 and PM100, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kong S.,Nankai University | Lu B.,Nankai University | Ji Y.,Nankai University | Bai Z.,Nankai University | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Thirty re-suspended dust samples were collected from building surfaces in an oilfield city, re-suspended and sampled through PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM 100 inlets and analyzed for 18 PAHs by GC-MS technique. PAHs concentrations, toxicity and profiles characteristic for different districts and size were studied. PAHs sources were identified by diagnostic ratios and primary component analysis. Results showed that the total amounts of analyzed PAHs in re-suspended dust in Dongying were 45.29, 23.79 and 11.41 μg g -1 for PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM 100, respectively. PAHs tended to concentrate in finer particles with mass ratios of PM 2.5/PM 10 and PM 10/PM 100 as 1.96 ± 0.86 and 2.53 ± 1.57. The old district with more human activities and long oil exploitation history exhibited higher concentrations of PAHs from both combustion and non-combustion sources. BaP-based toxic equivalent factor and BaP-based equivalent carcinogenic power exhibited decreasing sequence as PM 2.5 > PM 10 > PM 100 suggesting that the finer the particles, the more toxic of the dust. NaP, Phe, Flu, Pyr, BbF and BghiP were the abundant species. Coefficient of divergence analysis implied that PAHs in different districts and size fractions had common sources. Coal combustion, industrial sources, vehicle emission and petroleum were probably the main contributions according to the principal component analysis result. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kong S.,State Environmental Protect Key Laboratory Of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Poll Prev And Control | Kong S.,Nankai University | Lu B.,State Environmental Protect Key Laboratory Of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Poll Prev And Control | Lu B.,Nankai University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

15 road and 14 soil dust samples were collected from an oilfield city, Dongying, from 11/2009-4/2010 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb within PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM 100 fractions synchronously. Metal concentrations, sources and human health risk were studied. Results showed that both soil and road dust exhibited higher values for Mn and Zn and lower values for Co and Cd for the three fractions. Mass concentration ratios of PM 2.5/PM 10 and PM 10/PM 100 for metals in road and soil dust indicate that most of the heavy metals tend to concentrate in fine particles. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factors analysis showed that Cu, Zn and Cd exhibited moderate or heavy contamination and significant enrichment, indicating the influence of anthropogenic sources. Vanadium, Cr, Mn and Co were mostly not enriched and were mainly influenced by crustal sources. For Ni, As and Pb, they ranged from not enriched to moderately enriched and were influenced by both crustal materials and anthropogenic sources. The conclusions were confirmed by multivariate analysis methods. Principle component analysis revealed that the major sources were vehicle emission, industrial activities, coal combustion, agricultural activities and crustal materials. The risk assessment results indicated that metal ingestion appeared to be the main exposure route followed by dermal contact. The most likely cause for cancer and other health risks are both the fine particles of soil and road dusts. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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