Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science

Busan, South Korea

Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science

Busan, South Korea
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Shin D.Y.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Shin D.Y.,Pusan National University | Sung Kang H.,Pusan National University | Kim G.-Y.,Jeju National University | And 3 more authors.
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, has a wide range of anti-metabolic and anti-cancer activities. Decitabine also induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis in human cancer cells. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this cell cycle arrest are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the roles of the tumor suppressor p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21 following decitabine-induced G2/M arrest in human cancer cells. DNA flow cytometric analyses indicated that decitabine induced a G2/M arrest in AGS gastric and A549 lung carcinoma cell lines, which have wild type p53. Western blot analyses using whole cell lysates from AGS cells demonstrated that decitabine treatment did not change the steady-state level of Cdks and Cdk inhibitor p27, but it partially inhibited expression of cyclin A, cyclin B1, and Cdc25C proteins. However, similar results were found using the A549 cell line, where decitabine induced a dramatic up-regulation of both p53 and p21 expression, and the increased levels of p21 were associated with increased binding of p21 with Cdks, cyclin A, and cyclin B1. Knockdown of p53 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly abolished p53 induction by decitabine in AGS cells, yet p53 siRNA had no attenuating effect on p21 induction. In addition, depletion of p21 expression with siRNA, but not p53, significantly attenuated decitabine-induced G2/M arrest. We also observed that decitabine strongly induced G2/M arrest associated with p21 induction in both p53 allele-null (-/-) HCT116 and wild type p53 (+/+) HCT116 cell lines. Therefore, our data indicated that p21 plays a crucial role in decitabine-induced G2/M arrest and operates in a p53-independent manner. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Lim S.-N.,Inje University | Han H.-S.,Chungbuk National University | Lee K.-H.,Chungbuk National University | Lee S.-C.,Soonchunhyang University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Palliative Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Pain is one of the most common and distressing symptoms in patients with cancer, with a high prevalence of 90%. Appropriate pain assessment is very important in managing cancer pain. Objective: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate patient satisfaction with pain control therapy using a self-reporting pain assessment tool, (2) explore the usefulness of a self-reporting assessment tool for patients and physicians, and (3) evaluate patient perception of pain management and opioid analgesics. Methods: We enrolled a total of 587 South Korean adult cancer patients hospitalized for five days or more. Pain assessment using a self-reporting pain assessment tool was performed by patients themselves from Day 1 to Day 5. The average pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) and the frequency of breakthrough pain between Day 1 and Day 5 were recorded with a self-reporting pain assessment tool. We evaluated patient satisfaction with pain control and the usefulness of a self-reporting pain assessment tool for patients and physicians on Day 5. Results: Among the 587 enrolled patients, 551, excluding 36 patients who violated inclusion criteria, were analyzed. The pain satisfaction rate was 79.5%, and only 6.2% of assessed patients had a negative pain management index (PMI). However, symmetry analysis for pain intensity between patient and physician showed low agreement (kappa=0.21). The patients with dissatisfaction for cancer pain control expressed negative attitudes toward using opioid analgesics and misconceptions regarding pain management. The satisfaction for using a self-reporting pain assessment tool was 79.2% in patients and 86.4% in physicians, respectively. Conclusion: The use of a self-reporting pain assessment tool as a communication instrument provides an effective foundation for evaluating pain intensity in cancer pain management. A more individualized approach to patient education about pain management may improve patient outcome. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.


Shin D.Y.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Lee W.S.,Gyeongsang National University | Jung J.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Hong S.H.,Korea University | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Tight junctions (TJs) are a mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cells, and serve as a physical barrier to maintenance of homeostasis in body by controlling paracellular transport. Claudins are the most important molecules of the TJs, but paradoxically these proteins are frequently over-expressed in cancers and their overexpression is implicated in the invasive potential of cancer. Hence, we investigated the effects of flavonoids extracted from Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (FEOJ) on TJs and the expression of claudins as well as cancer invasion along with in LnCaP human prostate cancer. FEOJ suppressed cancer cell motility and invasiveness at the concentrations where FEOJ did not show anti-proliferative activity. FEOJ increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) associated with tightening TJs, and suppressed expression of claudin proteins. Furthermore, FEOJ suppressed the activities of MMP-2 and -9 in a dose-dependent manner, which came from the activation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) by FEOJ. FEOJ suppressed migration and invasion by suppressing PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, this study suggest that FEOJ suppresses cancer migration and invasion by tightening TJs through the suppression of claudin expression, and by suppressing MMPs in LnCaP human prostate cancer cells, which at least in part results from the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Shin D.Y.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Cha H.-J.,Kosin University | Kim G.-Y.,Jeju National University | Kim W.-J.,Chungbuk National University | Choi Y.H.,Korea University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an organosulfur compound in garlic, possesses pronounced anti-cancer potential. However, the anti-invasive mechanism of this compound in human bladder carcinoma is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-invasive effects of DATS on a human bladder carcinoma (5637) cell line and investigated the underlying mechanism. The results indicated that DATS suppressed migration and invasion of 5637 cells by reducing the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 at both the protein and mRNA levels. DATS treatment up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in 5637 cells. The inhibitory effects of DATS on invasiveness were associated with an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and repression of the levels of claudin family members. Although further studies are needed, our data demonstrate that DATS exhibits anti-invasive effects in 5637 cells by down-regulating the activity of tight junctions and MMPs. DATS may have future utility in clinical applications for treating bladder cancer. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Shin D.Y.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Choi Y.H.,Korea University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Cancer cells exhibit increased demand for glutamine-derived carbons to support anabolic processes. Indeed, the spectrum of glutamine-dependent tumors and the mechanisms through which glutamine supports cancer metabolism remain areas of active investigation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of glutamine deprivation on the correlation between tightening of tight junctions (TJs) and anti-invasive activity in human prostate carcinoma LnCap cells. Glutamine deprivation markedly inhibited cell motility and invasiveness in a time-dependent manner. The anti-invasive activity of glutamine deprivation was associated with an increased tightness of the TJ, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were inhibited in a time-dependent fashion by glutamine deprivation, which was correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins and up-regulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression. Furthermore, glutamine deprivation repressed the levels of the claudin family members, which are major components of TJs that play a key role in the control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Moreover, the levels of E-cadherin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, and snail, an epithelial to mesenchymal transition regulator and zinc finger transcription factor, were markedly modulated by glutamine deprivation. Taken together, these findings suggest that TJs and MMPs are critical targets of glutamine deprivation-induced anti-invasion in human prostate carcinoma LnCap cells. © 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


Shin D.Y.,Korea University | Shin D.Y.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Park Y.-S.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Yang K.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, has been found to exert anti-metabolic and anticancer activities when tested against various cultured cancer cells. Furthermore, decitabine has been found to play critical roles in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cell lines; however, these roles are not well understood. In this study, we investigated decitabine for its potential anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in human leukemia cell lines U937 and HL60. Our results indicated that treatment with decitabine resulted in significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by the induction of apoptosis. Decitabine-induced apoptosis in U937 and HL60 cells was correlated with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, XIAP, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 protein levels, the cleavage of Bid proteins, the activation of caspases and the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, apoptosis induced by decitabine was attenuated by caspase inhibitors, indicating an important role for caspases in decitabine responses. The data further demonstrated that decitabine increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Moreover, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a widely used ROS scavenger, effectively blocked the decitabine-induced apoptotic effects via inhibition of ROS production and MMP collapse. These observations clearly indicate that decitabine-induced ROS in human leukemia cells are key mediators of MMP collapse, which leads to apoptosis induction followed by caspase activation.


Rhyu D.-W.,Kosin University | Kang Y.-J.,Kosin University | Ock M.-S.,Kosin University | Eo J.-W.,Pusan National University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) env proteins have been recently reported to be significantly up-regulated in certain cancers. Specifically, mRNA and protein levels of HERV-K (HML-2) are up-regulated in the blood plasma or serum of breast cancer patients. Here, we collected blood samples of 49 breast cancer patients and analyzed mRNA expressions of various HERVs env genes including HERV-R, HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-P by real-time PCR. The expression of env genes were significantly increased in the blood of primary breast cancer patients but were decreased in patients undergoing chemotherapy to a similar level with benign patients. When we compared the group currently undergoing chemotherapy and those patients undergoing chemotherapy simultaneously with radiotherapy, HERVs env genes were reduced more in the chemotherapy only group, suggesting that chemotherapy is more effective in reducing HERV env gene expression than is radiotherapy. Among chemotherapy groups, HERV env gene expression was the lowest in the taxotere- or taxol-treated group, suggesting that taxotere and taxol can reduce HERVs env expression. These data suggest the potential to use HERVs env genes as a diagnosis marker for primary breast cancer, and further studies are needed to identify the mechanism and physiological significance of the reduction of HERV env gene expression during chemotherapy. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Shin D.Y.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Kim G.-Y.,Jeju National University | Lee J.H.,Chemistry and Biotechnology Examination Bureau | Choi B.T.,Pusan National University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012

Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a sulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the compound's anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DADS were investigated in DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that DADS markedly inhibited the growth of the DU145 cells by induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was accompanied by modulation of Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) and proteolytic activation of caspases. We also found that the expression of death-receptor 4 (DR4) and Fas ligand (FasL) proteins was increased and that the level of intact Bid proteins was down-regulated by DADS. Moreover, treatment with DADS induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly blocked DADS-induced-apoptosis, whereas inhibitors of the ERK (PD98059) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) had no effect. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increased DADS-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the proapoptotic effect of DADS is mediated through the activation of JNK and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in DU145 cells. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Shin D.Y.,Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine science | Kim G.-Y.,Jeju National University | Hwang H.J.,Korea University | Kim W.-J.,Chungbuk National University | Choi Y.H.,Korea University
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is one of the major organosulfur components of garlic (Allium sativum L.), which inhibits the proliferation of various cancer cells, but the exact mechanisms of this action in human bladder cancer cells still remain largely unresolved. In this study, we investigated how DATS induces apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells in vitro. Treatment of T24 cells with DATS resulted in potent anti-proliferative activity. Additionally, some typical apoptotic characteristics, such as chromatin condensation and an increase in the population of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells, were observed. With respect to the mechanism underlying the induction of apoptosis, DATS reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and inhibitor of apoptosis protein family proteins, but the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and death receptor-related proteins was increased compared with the controls. DATS also activated caspase-8 and -9, the respective initiator caspases of the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. The increase in mitochondrial membrane depolarization was correlated with activation of effector caspase-3 and cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, a vital substrate of activated caspase-3. Blockage of caspase activation through treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor consistently inhibited apoptosis and abrogated growth inhibition in DATS-treated T24 cells. The study further investigated the roles of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways with respect to the apoptotic effect of DATS, and showed that DATS deactivates Akt. Additionally, DATS activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), but not p38 MAPK, in T24 cells. Unlike ERK, JNK inhibitors reversed DATS-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition; however, inhibition of PI3K/Akt notably enhanced the apoptotic action of DATS. The results suggest that the pro-apoptotic activity of DATS is probably regulated by a caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways, which is mediated through the blocking of PI3K/Akt and the activation of the JNK pathway. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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