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Gu X.-W.,Northeastern University China | Xu X.-C.,Northeastern University China | Wang Q.,Northeastern University China | Liu J.-P.,Northeastern University China | Liu J.-P.,Dongmei Foundation Company of Shenyang
Dongbei Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Northeastern University | Year: 2013

Based on the regular block grade model and surface model, cone exclusive method was used to obtain a sequence of "geologically optimum final pits" and "geologically optimum push-backs". The geologically optimum push-backs were put into an as-built dynamic sequencing model with the maximum NPV as the target function, which found out the best way as the optimum mining scheme. Then the best mining path of every geologically optimum final pit was found out as the optimal mining scheme. According to production plan of every geologically optimum final pit, the final pit with the largest NPV was chosen as optimum final pit, the best mining path of which was further chosen as the optimal production design, realizing the simultaneous optimization of the final pit and production design. Based on the ecological footprint theory, the mine eco-cost model was constructed. The mine eco-cost was calculated combining with the boundary production plan, which was added to boundary to make the exogenous eco-cost endogenous, achieving the economic-ecological optimization of mine project and design. Application showed that eco-cost has significant effect on ultimate boundary and mine returning on investment. Source


Xu X.-C.,Northeastern University China | Gu X.-W.,Northeastern University China | Wang Q.,Northeastern University China | Liu J.-P.,Northeastern University China | And 3 more authors.
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) | Year: 2014

The ecological costs of open pit metal mining are quantified, which include lost value of direct eco-services, lost value of indirect eco-services, prevention and restoration costs, and cost of carbon emission from energy consumption. These ecological costs are incorporated in an iterative ultimate pit optimization algorithm. A case study is presented to demonstrate the influence of ecological costs on pit design outcome. The results show that it is possible to internalize ecological costs in mine designs. The pit optimization outcome shifts considerably to the conservative side and the profitability decreases substantially when ecological costs are accounted for. © 2014 The Nonferrous Metals Society of China. Source


Xu X.-C.,Northeastern University China | Gu X.-W.,Northeastern University China | Wang Q.,Northeastern University China | Liu J.-P.,Northeastern University China | Liu J.-P.,Dongmei Foundation Company of Shenyang
Dongbei Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Northeastern University | Year: 2014

The overlapping problem in cones is an inherent defect for cone elimination method in optimizing ultimate pit. In view of this, diminishing vertical scan step is used to improve cone elimination algorithm and the step are set as one, half and one quarter of the block height. According to the actual conditions of ore deposits, an appropriate step or combination step is chosen for some mine optimization to improve optimization accuracy. The results of three example applications show that, under the same condition of technical and economic parameters, the ultimate pits produced by improved elimination algorithm are better than those by conventional algorithm. The profits of three mines grow by RMB 21.7, 41.7, and 233.3 million, respectively. Source


Gu X.-W.,Northeastern University China | Xu X.-C.,Northeastern University China | Wang Q.,Northeastern University China | Liu J.-P.,Northeastern University China | Liu J.-P.,Dongmei Foundation Company of Shenyang
Dongbei Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Northeastern University | Year: 2014

In optimizing production scheduling of open-pit mine, the effect of overlap among cones on its average grade was usually ignored, in oder to deal with this shortcoming, an improved cone elimination algorithm was proposed. In the process of cone elimination, the spatial search logic was redefined, the average grade of cones influenced by the lowest grade cone and rearranged cones in the cone array were recalculated. A dynamic sequence model was established by taking the geological optimum push-backs generated by new algorithm as state variable, all feasible paths were evaluated, and the path whose NPV is the biggest was taken as the optimal exploitation scheme. The application example showed that under the same conditions of technology and economy, the improved algorithm is superior to the initial algorithm in the production stability and NPV, where the NPV increases by 10.5%. Source


Gu X.,Northeastern University China | Wang Q.,Northeastern University China | Wang P.,Northeastern University China | Xu X.,Northeastern University China | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

The sustainability of a nation's social and economic development is fundamentally determined by how much the nation's environmental system is strained by human activities, which is in turn determined by the pressure/burden created by human activities and the carrying capacity of the nation's environment. Based on the material flows of an economy's metabolism and the carrying capacity of the environment, two new aggregate indicators are proposed and formulated, one being the "total domestic environmental loading" which measures the gross environmental burden imposed on the domestic environment by human activities, and the other the "total environmental stress" which measures the intensity of environmental pressure on a nation's environment. The indicators are applied to six nations, namely, China, Germany, Netherlands, Austria, Japan, and The United States, for a number of years. Results show that, during the years from 1990 to 2002, China's total environmental stress ranged from 57 to 82 metric tons per global hectare, exhibiting a trend of first rise, then fall and then rise again. The tendency of rebound in China's total environmental stress after 2000 is a warning sign of further environmental degradation and should be taken seriously. During the comparison period (1993-1996), the ranking of the six nations with respect to total environmental stress, in a descending order, is China, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, The United States, and Austria. The total environmental stress values of the 5 industrial nations either remained relatively stable or declined, indicating that the environmental stress of these nations exhibited various degrees of "decoupling " from their economic growth. China's total environmental stress, however, experienced a steady increase in the same period and has a tendency of increase after 2002. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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