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Liu J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Pan C.-Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Pan C.-Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tong J.-F.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2015

The thermo-hydraulic analysis including reduction of the height of recirculation zone and stability of the free surface is very important in the design and optimization of ADS windowless spallation targets. In the present study, the Bernoulli equation is used to analyze the entire flow process in the target. Formulae for the height of the recirculation zone and the buffer zone are both obtained explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the heavy metal lead-bismuth eutectic liquid and vapor with cavitation phase change is also performed, and a novel method to calculate the height of the recirculation zone is put forward. By comparison of the theoretical formulae and numerical results, it is clearly shown that they agree with each other very well, and the heights predicted by the two methods are both determined by their own upstream flow parameters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Huang M.-Y.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics | Huang M.-Y.,Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science DINS | Guo X.-H.,Beijing Normal University | Young B.-L.,Iowa State University | Young B.-L.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics
Chinese Physics C | Year: 2016

After considering supernova shock effects, Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, neutrino collective effects, and Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at the China Spallation Neutron Source is studied and the expected numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and the "beta fit" distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numerical calculation method of supernova neutrino detection on Earth is applied to some other spallation neutron sources, and the total expected numbers of supernova neutrinos observed through different reactions channels are given. © Article funded by SCOAP3 and published under licence by Chinese Physical Society and the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Wei G.,Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science DINS | Wei G.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Li X.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Jia D.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2016

Spherical Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-azide-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT-azide-PCBM) microgel was synthesized by introducing an azide cross-linkable group into the conjugated polymer. Its UV-vis spectrum shifts blue as a result of the systematic disruption of planarity along the P3HT backbone and a reduction in long range conjugation. And the corresponding fluorescence spectrum also indicates that a strong intra-molecular photo-induced electron transfer is originated from the covalent linkage of PCBM moiety to the P3HT backbone via the hexyl bridge upon photo-excitation. Combined Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), dynamic and static light scattering (DLS and SLS) measurements prove that the resultant P3HT-azide-PCBM copolymer is a uniform spherical microgel with a hydrodynamic radius of 130 nm at room temperature. The spherical P3HT-azide-PCBM microgel can be used as electron donor or compatibilizer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices, but its introduction reduces the photovoltaic performance compared with the blend of P3HT/PCBM, because the hole mobility in the crosslinked polythiophene backbones is largely decreased. Copyright © 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. Source

Zhou Z.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Zhou Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hollingsworth J.V.,CAS Institute of Chemistry | Hong S.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | And 6 more authors.
Soft Matter | Year: 2014

A series of microgel particles composed of a polystyrene (PS) core and a thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) shell with different shell thicknesses were investigated to elucidate the effect of microgel softness on its shear thickening behavior. Since the softness of the microgels increases with decreasing temperature through the volume phase transition effect of PNIPAM shell, the measured softness parameter, n, which is derived from the Zwanzig-Mountain equation, was used to measure and describe the combined influences of temperature and shell thickness. Confocal microscopy is used to investigate the interaction potential between microgel particles with different softness parameters. According to the obtained results, the softness parameter can provide an estimate for the shear thickening behavior of microgel suspensions, at least semi-quantitatively. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Jia D.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Jia D.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hollingsworth J.V.,University of St. Thomas, Texas | Zhou Z.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | And 4 more authors.
Soft Matter | Year: 2015

The state transition from gel to glass is studied in a biphasic mixture of polystyrene core/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) shell (CS) microgels and sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) particles. At 35 °C, the interaction between CS microgels is due to short-range van der Waals attraction, while that between PSS particles is from long-range electrostatic repulsion. During the variation of the relative ratio of the two species at a fixed apparent total volume fraction, the mixture exhibits a gel-to-defective gel-to-glass transition. When small amounts of PSS are introduced into the CS gel network, some of them are kinetically trapped, causing a change in its fractal structure, and act as defects to weaken the macroscopic gel strength. An increase of the PSS content in the mixture promotes the switch from the gel to the defective gel, e.g., the typical two-step yielding gel merges into one-step yielding. This phenomenon is an indication that inter-cluster bond breakage coincides with intra-cluster bond fracture. As the relative volume fraction of PSS exceeds a critical threshold, the gel network can no longer be formed; hence, the mixture exhibits characteristics of glass. A state diagram of the biphasic mixture is constructed, and the landscapes of the different transitions will be described in future studies. © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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