Buonomenna M.G.,Ordine dei Chimici Della Campania |
Bae J.,Dongduk Womens University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015
In this work, an overview of the interconnections between membrane technology and renewable energy sources (biomass, salinity gradient power, wind, solar) is given. Regarding biomass, membrane processes such as membrane reactors and bio-reactors, membrane contactors, membrane distillation in the logic of process intensification strategy may be opportunely integrated in the production processes of green fuels. Their advantages such as reduction of the separation load and stage number, improved yields and selectivities compared to conventional processes imply low direct energy consumption, lower footprint area occupied by the processes plants. Moreover, the possibility of integration these advanced membrane processes with other traditional membrane operations such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), pervaporation (PV) allows the reduction of indirect energy consumption through the recycling and reuse of raw materials and secondary materials minimizing the formation of wastes. Both Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) and Reversed Electro Dialysis (RED), the only two technologies for which salinity gradient power-based demonstration projects are running, use membranes. In this article, key points and challenges to be faced for both PRO and RED are reported. On the other side, membrane desalination plants, are more often considered excellent locations to install wind and solar power generators. Most advanced research in the field is focused on solar assisted membrane distillation (MD). In the logic of fully "sustainable desalination", highly innovative technologies such as Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) could be integrated as pre-treatment stage in membrane desalination plants in remote, arid regions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park S.,Dongduk Womens University
Nutrients | Year: 2013
The effect of high doses of vitamin C for the treatment of cancer has been controversial. Our previous studies, and studies by others, have reported that vitamin C at concentrations of 0.25-1.0 mM induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and in leukemic cells from peripheral blood specimens obtained from patients with AML. Treatment of cells with high doses of vitamin C resulted in an immediate increase in intracellular total glutathione content and glutathione-S transferase activity that was accompanied by the uptake of cysteine. These results suggest a new role for high concentrations of vitamin C in modulation of intracellular sulfur containing compounds, such as glutathione and cysteine. This review, discussing biochemical pharmacologic studies, including pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies, presents the different pharmacological effects of vitamin C currently under investigation. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Park K.,Dongduk Womens University
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2013
Blood levels, tissue distributions, and excretion of silver (Ag) were measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) up to 24 h after a single oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and silver ions (Ag+), respectively. The AUC24hr of Ag+ was 3.81 ± 0.57 μg/d/ml when rats were treated with a single dose of 20 mg/kg, whereas that of AgNP was 1.58 ± 0.25 μg/d/ml. Tissue distribution of Ag in liver, kidneys, and lungs was higher when Ag+ was administered compared to AgNP. Orally administered AgNP were predominantly excreted through feces, suggesting low bioavailability. Death or body weight changes were not observed in the Ag +-or AgNP-treated groups. However, decreased red blood cell counts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were found in the Ag+-treated groups, while increased platelet counts and mean platelet volume were noted in the AgNP-treated rats. A serum biochemical analysis showed that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) rose significantly following Ag+ treatment (20 mg/kg). AgNP treatment (2 or 20 mg/kg) also elevated AST, whereas infiltration of mononuclear cells with liver necrosis was found only in the 20 mg/kg Ag+-treated animals. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Bae J.,Dongduk Womens University |
Jang J.,Seoul National University
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry | Year: 2012
Carbon nanotubes with an average diameter of 50. nm were produced from polypyrrole nanotubes fabricated with a surfactant mediated microemulsion polymerization. A simple production of polypyrrole nanotube precursor was possible through a proper selection of surfactant and initiator in microemulsion system. A subsequent thermal treatment of conducting polymer precursor generated novel carbon nanotubes. Electron microscopy images confirmed the successful formations of polypyrrole and carbon nanotubes. A series of carbon nanotube pastes were formulated with combination of binders and fillers. The field emission characteristic of these carbon nanotubes was monitored by I-V curves. Constant current tests revealed the lifetime of carbon nanotube field emitters derived from polypyrrole nanotubes. © 2012 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
Han Y.,Dongduk Womens University
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2010
We previously reported that the IgM MAb B6.1, specific for β-1,2-mannotriose on the surface of the cell wall of Candida albicans, prevents mice from disseminated candidiasis. The preventive activity of the antibody is mediated by enhanced phagocytosis that caused killing of the fungus and involvement of the complement system. In the present study, MAb B6.1 was tested if the antibody enhances therapeutic efficacy of amphotericin B (Amp B) in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis due to C. albicans. Determination by the kidneys-cfu (colony forming unit) and survival times was used to assess treatment. Mice treated intraperitoneally with MAb B6.1 at 1 h post-infection with C. albicans (5 × 105 yeast cells/mouse) developed fewer 28% cfu and prolonged survival rates than negative controls, whereas administration of B6.1 to mice at 2 h post-infection was ineffective. Therapeutic effect of Amp B on mice with the disseminated disease was dose-dependent, but dosage of Amp B (0.5 mg/kg body weight of mice) was not effective. A combination of MAb B6.1given at 1 h post-infection plus Amp B (0.5 mg dose) enhanced survival times beyond the effect due to only antibody (P < 0.05). The MST (mean survival times) value resulted from the combination therapy-received mice was as almost the same as MST value from 2 mg dose of Amp B-given animals (P < 0.05). In case mice given a combination of Amp B (0.5 mg dose) plus MAb B6.1 at 2 h post-infection - a condition of developing no therapeutic efficacy, the combination also reduced disease severity. All these data indicate that MAb B6.1 acts in concert with Amp B, the antibody enhances therapeutic efficacy of Amp B, and this combination therapy augments protection which implies a possibility of reducing Amp B dose. The augmentation of the response appeared to be specific because an irrelevant IgM carbohydrate-specific MAb was not protective. In conclusion, these studies show that Amp B combined with MAb B6.1 may be an option of solving the problem of limited antifungal drug choices due to drug-resistant C. albicans © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.