Nygaard N.G.,DONG Energy
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2014
We present the first analysis of wake losses in some of the largest offshore wind farms built to date. In addition, we give an example of the external wake losses that can be imposed by a neighbouring wind farm. Both situations lend insights to the wake phenomena in large offshore wind farm clusters. A simple wake model is compared to the data to assess the need for a more detailed physical description of large wind farm wakes. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: LCE-05-2015 | Award Amount: 51.69M | Year: 2016
In order to unlock the full potential of Europes offshore resources, network infrastructure is urgently required, linking off-shore wind parks and on-shore grids in different countries. HVDC technology is envisaged but the deployment of meshed HVDC offshore grids is currently hindered by the high cost of converter technology, lack of experience with protection systems and fault clearance components and immature international regulations and financial instruments. PROMOTioN will overcome these barriers by development and demonstration of three key technologies, a regulatory and financial framework and an offshore grid deployment plan for 2020 and beyond. A first key technology is presented by Diode Rectifier offshore converter. This concept is ground breaking as it challenges the need for complex, bulky and expensive converters, reducing significantly investment and maintenance cost and increasing availability. A fully rated compact diode rectifier converter will be connected to an existing wind farm. The second key technology is an HVDC grid protection system which will be developed and demonstrated utilising multi-vendor methods within the full scale Multi-Terminal Test Environment. The multi-vendor approach will allow DC grid protection to become a plug-and-play solution. The third technology pathway will first time demonstrate performance of existing HVDC circuit breaker prototypes to provide confidence and demonstrate technology readiness of this crucial network component. The additional pathway will develop the international regulatory and financial framework, essential for funding, deployment and operation of meshed offshore HVDC grids. With 35 partners PROMOTioN is ambitious in its scope and advances crucial HVDC grid technologies from medium to high TRL. Consortium includes all major HVDC and wind turbine manufacturers, TSOs linked to the North Sea, offshore wind developers, leading academia and consulting companies.
DONG Energy | Date: 2014-01-22
Provided are apparatus and methods of gasification using a circulating fluidized bed reactor comprising a separate pyrolysis reaction chamber, one or more primary char gasification chambers, and one or more secondary char gasification chambers which comprise an internal vertical reaction volume suitable for containing a particle bed fluidized by a predominantly vertical upwards gas flow. The vertical reaction volume is advantageous in that this provides the possibility for increased retention time of particles, facilitating comparatively slow productive temperature moderation based on endothermic char conversion.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2012.8.8.1 | Award Amount: 7.45M | Year: 2013
Urban areas are responsible for three quarters of the global energy demand. Most decisions on implementing energy innovations are made in cities. TRANSFORM supports cities to meet the 20-20-20 targets by the integration of energy in urban management. In interactive Smart Urban Labs, stakeholders will be able to turn ambitions into tangible Implementation Plans. TRANSFORMs integrative approach brings operational plans to the strategic level, including strong stakeholder processes, data analytics and takes into account all relevant energy flows, environmental aspects, urban mobility, and the interrelation of possible measures and their costs. This integration of elements creates win-win business models for stakeholders with initially different interests. The TRANSFORM consortium consists of six frontrunner cities from across Europe in the fields of Smart City, Integrated Urban Planning and sustainable project development. Energy companies, both local and European, work with them, together with knowledge institutions and leading European commercial partners. TRANSFORM: - Supports cities with implementation plans embedded in integrated planning - Improves insight in stakeholder processes and financial strategies - Improves insight in the use of data, and the possibility to find better economics by using analytics The power of TRANSFORM is the combination of practice and scientific insights. The delivered Key Performance Indicators and models for integrated planning and data analysis set standards for the European Smart City project. All European cities will benefit from this approach in their change from business-as-usual to low carbon strategies. City-to-city replication and implementation of the results are a crucial element of TRANSFORM. The project mobilizes stakeholders and politicians of European cities through the extensive networks of all TRANSFORM partners, for example by providing master classes and through a strong political Memorandum of Understanding.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: OCEAN.2011-1 | Award Amount: 7.38M | Year: 2012
European oceans will be subject to massive development of marine infrastructure in the near future. The most obvious is the energy facilities e.g. offshore wind farms, exploitation of wave energy, expansion of electricity connections, and also further development and implementation of marine aquaculture. This will also lead to an increased need for marine infrastructure to support installation and the on-going operation of the facilities. However both economical costs and environmental impact have to be reduced in order to increase the feasibility of the use of ocean space. Marine structures for offshore wind farms and aquaculture have to be installed at various sites and on much larger scale than earlier implementation of offshore structures in order to fulfil EU strategies (1) for reduction of fossil-based energy and (2) to become a major player in sustainable aquaculture. However the feasibility is much more sensitive to the costs of structures and the installation of the structures than for instance Oil & Gas facilities. Novel innovative design concepts should address different physical conditions in order to make the best use of the ocean space. Going from deep water (north of Spain) to shallow water with high morphological activity (the Wadden sea) and further to inner waters like the inner Danish/Baltic areas and the Adriatic sea changes the focus from a strong physical aspect to environmental impact. This will make it possible to develop, test and integrate different technologies but also to address site specific challenges. Both for offshore renewables and for aquaculture a substantial part of the costs is variable cost related to operations and maintenance of the plants. It is obvious that optimization of the use of ocean space for different purposes might benefit from shared resources such staff allocation, transportation of staff and material from and to the platforms, use of forecasting systems, ships etc.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-07-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 4.60M | Year: 2016
Medium- to large-scale bioenergy utilisation for electricity and combined industrial or district heating is predicted to increase by 160% in 2020 compared to 2010, while carbon emission quotas are becoming stricter. Finding new ways to efficiently utilise cheap and currently unused feedstocks are necessary in order to meet these challenges. Within the project Biofficiency we will investigate how to handle ash-related problems in order to increase steam temperatures up to 600C in biomass-based CHP plants, including pulverised fuel and fluidised bed systems. The major aspects are fly ash formation, the use of additives, and pre-treatment technologies for difficult fuels. This leads to highly reduced emissions, in particular CO2 and fine particulates, as well as a secure and sustainable energy production. Biofficiency gathers a unique consortium of excellent academic facilities and industrial partners, providing an exceptional platform for the development of new, highly-efficient CHP plants in order to significantly expand their potential in the fast-growing field of renewable energies. By sharing our collective experience, we will strengthen European bio-energy technologies and help solving global climate and energy challenges. The project approach addresses current bottlenecks in solid biomass combustion, namely enhanced deposit formation, corrosion and ash utilisation by a variety of new, promising technologies. Our goal is to deepen the understanding of fly ash formation, to improve current biomass pre-treatment technologies, as well as to contribute to the field of biomass ash utilisation. Through our strong collaboration with industry and academic partners, we want to pave the way for highly-efficient, low-emitting biomass CHP plants, capable of firing low-grade fuels. This benefits industry, communal partners and public authorities by providing sustainable heat and electricity at significantly decreased emissions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.3.7 | Award Amount: 52.35M | Year: 2012
ene.field will deploy up to 1,000 residential fuel cell Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) installations, across 11 key Member States. It represents a step change in the volume of fuel cell micro-CHP (micro FC-CHP) deployment in Europe and a meaningful step towards commercialisation of the technology. The programme brings together 9 mature European micro FC-CHP manufacturers into a common analysis framework to deliver trials across all of the available fuel cell CHP technologies. Fuel cell micro-CHP trials will be installed and actively monitored in dwellings across the range of European domestic heating markets, dwelling types and climatic zones, which will lead to an invaluable dataset on domestic energy consumption and micro-CHP applicability across Europe. By learning the practicalities of installing and supporting a fleet of fuel cells with real customers, ene.field partners will take the final step before they can begin commercial roll-out. An increase in volume deployment for the manufacturers involved will stimulate cost reduction of the technology by enabling a move from hand-built products towards serial production and tooling. The ene.field project also brings together over 30 utilities, housing providers and municipalities to bring the products to market and explore different business models for micro-CHP deployment. The data produced by ene.field will be used to provide a fact base for micro FC-CHP, including a definitive environmental lifecycle assessment and cost assessment on a total cost of ownership basis. To inform clear national strategies on micro-CHP within Member States, ene.field will establish the macro-economics and CO2 savings of the technologies in their target markets and make recommendations on the most appropriate policy mechanisms to support the commercialisation of domestic micro-CHP across Europe. Finally ene.field will assess the socio-economic barriers to widespread deployment of micro-CHP and disseminate clear position papers and advice for policy makers to encourage further roll out.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.7.1.1 | Award Amount: 56.70M | Year: 2010
A group of 6 Transmission System Operators (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany The Netherlands and Spain) with 2 generator companies, 5 manufacturers and research organisations, propose 6 demonstration projects to remove, in 3 years, several barriers which prevent the electric system from welcoming more wind electricity, and wind electricity from contributing more to the electric system. The full scale demonstrations aim at proving the benefits of novel technologies (most of them available from manufacturers) coupled with innovative system management approaches. The contribution of wind energy to the system will show how aggregated wind farms can provide system services (voltage and frequency control) in Spain. The aggregation of wind farms with flexible generation and loads will be demonstrated in Denmark using a scalable IT platform developed by a generator. Increasing the flexibility of transmission networks will be tested in Belgium (existing sensors and coordinated power flow control devices avoiding possible large scale instabilities induced by wind farms in the CWE region) and in Spain (dynamic wind power evacuation capacity using real-time computations based on short-term generation forecasts and use of a mobile Overload Line Controller). Off-shore wind farms are addressed from a security viewpoint. Secure HVDC meshed networks will be validated in France using simulations and full scale experiments of two different HVDC circuit breaker technologies. Off-shore wind farm shut downs under stormy conditions will be demonstrated in Denmark using the world largest off-shore wind farm with balancing power provided by the Norwegian hydro capacities through a HVDC link. The experimental results will be integrated into European impact analyses to show the scalability of the solutions: routes for replication will be provided with benefits for the pan European transmission network and the European electricity market as soon as 2014, in line with the SET plan objectives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SoU | Phase: ENERGY.2013.8.8.1 | Award Amount: 33.34M | Year: 2014
Based on thorough integrated climate planning the READY project will demonstrate a Whole City Approach including: 1) Demo of a balanced and holistic approach towards affordable retrofitting of residential buildings and offices 2) Development and demo of new solutions for low-temp. district heating, components and management ICT systems 3) Development and demo of flexible combined grid balancing/energy storage solutions for buildings and RES systems including combined heat pumps for heating and cooling, electrical vehicles charging, new PVT systems and 2ndlife reuse of EV batteries in buildings 4) Resource and energy smart solutions for kitchens 5) Solutions for water efficiency and waste water energy recovery 6) Demo of new innovative industrial equipment for use of RES and integration of demand and supply, - based on business plans, and follow-up by promotion and dissemination activities. These measures will demonstrate how the demand of energy and particularly the needs for fossil fuels and release of CO2 can be considerably reduced to nearly zero, and show a sustainable way to go for other European cities. Demonstration will take place in 2 cities; Aarhus (DK - 300,000 inhabitants), which is representative for north western parts of Europe and Vxj (SE - 83,000 inhabitants) representative for the Baltic Sea region. Both cities have a long standing technical experience and for years been frontrunners in respect of setting and carrying out ambitious climate and smart city polices. Kaunas (LT - 300,000 inhabitants) will take part as an observer city in order to bring in Eastern European experience with a most relevant context. The project team consist of internationally well known industrial companies, energy supply companies, SMEs, housing companies, universities, consultants and other organisations that formed the consortium to realise the project. All participants are devoted to improve RES integration in energy supply systems and housing standards towards nZEB
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.3-2 | Award Amount: 3.84M | Year: 2014
Main objective of the project is the demonstration and validation of an eco-innovative design of asphalt pavements based on the integration of more sustainable materials into its production cycle. This goal will be achieved by working on two asphalt mixtures main components, binders and aggregates. On the binder side, the aim is to replace almost the 100% of the bitumen by greener materials from renewable raw sources, e.g. vegetable oils, by-products of bioethanol production. On the aggregates side, efforts will be made on the valorization of Construction and Demolition Waste and in the use of reclaimed asphalt for asphalt mixtures. Abstract: Road transport is the most important mode of surface transport in Europe- the EU-27 disposes of 5.000.000 km of paved roads- and it is fundamental to its social and economic development. The asphalt industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and raw materials, and highest contributor to the emission of greenhouses gases. Developing novel technologies to integrate waste and recycled materials into the production cycle of asphalt mixtures is a solution that improves both sustainability and cost-efficiency of the asphalt pavement industry reducing the CO2 footprint of these pavements and the environmental impact and associated costs related to the waste generation and disposal. In this context, a new concept of eco-asphalt is presented combining greener binders, recycling aggregates from C&DW and reclaimed asphalt within an integrated solution for asphalt pavements.