Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co.

Yongin si, South Korea

Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co.

Yongin si, South Korea
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Cheong Y.-H.,Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co. | Cheong Y.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim M.-K.,Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co. | Son M.-H.,Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co. | Kaang B.-K.,Seoul National University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a target for type 2 diabetes treatment. Due to the inconvenience of peptide therapeutics, small-molecule GLP-1R agonists have been studied. Compound 2 (6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-2-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline) and compound B (4-(3-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-2-(ethylsulfinyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine) have been described as small molecule, ago-allosteric modulators of GLP-1R. However, their modes of action at the GLP-1R have not been elucidated. Thus, in this study, we compared the mechanisms of action between these two compounds. When compound 2 was treated with endogenous or exogenous peptide agonists (GLP-1 and exenatide) or fragments of peptide agonists (GLP-1(9-36), Ex3, Ex4, and Ex5), the response curve of these peptide agonists shifted left without a change in maximum efficacy. In contrast, compound B potentiated the response and increased maximum efficacy. However, N-terminal truncated orthosteric antagonists including Ex7, Ex9, and Ex10, augmented the response of compound 2 at the GLP-1R but did not alter compound B activity. Intriguingly, when we co-treated compound 2 with compound B in CHO cells expressing full-length hGLP-1R or N-terminal extracellular domain-truncated GLP-1R, the activation of both types of receptors increased additively, implying that the N-terminus of the receptor is not involved in the modulation by compound agonists. We confirmed that these two compounds increased calcium influx by different patterns in CHO cells expressing GLP-1R. Taken together, our findings suggest that compounds 2 and B have different modes of action to activate GLP-1R. Further study to identify the putative binding sites will help in the discovery of orally available GLP-1R agonists. © 2011 Elsevier Inc..


Cheong Y.-H.,Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co. | Cheong Y.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim M.-K.,Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co. | Son M.-H.,Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co. | Kaang B.-K.,Seoul National University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

Repeated fluctuation in plasma glucose levels, as well as chronic hyperglycemia, is an important phenomenon frequently observed in diabetic patients. Recently, several studies have reported that glucose fluctuation, compared to chronic hyperglycemia, mediates more adverse effects due to induced oxidative and/or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In type 2 diabetes, stimulation of insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been found to be reduced, and the results of recent studies have shown that the expression of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is reduced by chronic hyperglycemia. However, GLP-1R signaling in glucose fluctuation has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we hypothesized that intermittent high glucose (IHG) conditions also reduced GLP-1-mediated cellular signaling via reduction in GLP-1R expression. To evaluate this hypothesis, rat insulinoma cells (INS-1) were exposed for 72. h to either sustained high glucose (SHG) conditions (30. mM glucose) or IHG conditions (11 and 30. mM glucose, alternating every 12. h). In comparison to both the SHG and control groups, IHG conditions induced a more significant impairment of insulin release and calcium influx in response to 1. nM GLP-1 treatment. In addition, the activity of caspase 3/7 as well as the gene expression of binding protein (Bip) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), molecular markers of ER stress, was significantly higher in IHG-treated cells than in SHG-treated cells. Interestingly, the expression level of GLP-1R was significantly lower under IHG conditions than under SHG conditions. Collectively, these findings indicated that glucose fluctuation reduces GLP-1R expression through ER stress more profoundly than sustained hyperglycemia, which may contribute to the diminished response of GLP-1. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2011

Repeated fluctuation in plasma glucose levels, as well as chronic hyperglycemia, is an important phenomenon frequently observed in diabetic patients. Recently, several studies have reported that glucose fluctuation, compared to chronic hyperglycemia, mediates more adverse effects due to induced oxidative and/or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In type 2 diabetes, stimulation of insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been found to be reduced, and the results of recent studies have shown that the expression of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is reduced by chronic hyperglycemia. However, GLP-1R signaling in glucose fluctuation has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we hypothesized that intermittent high glucose (IHG) conditions also reduced GLP-1-mediated cellular signaling via reduction in GLP-1R expression. To evaluate this hypothesis, rat insulinoma cells (INS-1) were exposed for 72 h to either sustained high glucose (SHG) conditions (30 mM glucose) or IHG conditions (11 and 30 mM glucose, alternating every 12h). In comparison to both the SHG and control groups, IHG conditions induced a more significant impairment of insulin release and calcium influx in response to 1nM GLP-1 treatment. In addition, the activity of caspase 3/7 as well as the gene expression of binding protein (Bip) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), molecular markers of ER stress, was significantly higher in IHG-treated cells than in SHG-treated cells. Interestingly, the expression level of GLP-1R was significantly lower under IHG conditions than under SHG conditions. Collectively, these findings indicated that glucose fluctuation reduces GLP-1R expression through ER stress more profoundly than sustained hyperglycemia, which may contribute to the diminished response of GLP-1.


PubMed | Dong A Pharmaceuticals Co.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2012

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a target for type 2 diabetes treatment. Due to the inconvenience of peptide therapeutics, small-molecule GLP-1R agonists have been studied. Compound 2 (6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-2-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline) and compound B (4-(3-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-2-(ethylsulfinyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine) have been described as small molecule, ago-allosteric modulators of GLP-1R. However, their modes of action at the GLP-1R have not been elucidated. Thus, in this study, we compared the mechanisms of action between these two compounds. When compound 2 was treated with endogenous or exogenous peptide agonists (GLP-1 and exenatide) or fragments of peptide agonists (GLP-1(9-36), Ex3, Ex4, and Ex5), the response curve of these peptide agonists shifted left without a change in maximum efficacy. In contrast, compound B potentiated the response and increased maximum efficacy. However, N-terminal truncated orthosteric antagonists including Ex7, Ex9, and Ex10, augmented the response of compound 2 at the GLP-1R but did not alter compound B activity. Intriguingly, when we co-treated compound 2 with compound B in CHO cells expressing full-length hGLP-1R or N-terminal extracellular domain-truncated GLP-1R, the activation of both types of receptors increased additively, implying that the N-terminus of the receptor is not involved in the modulation by compound agonists. We confirmed that these two compounds increased calcium influx by different patterns in CHO cells expressing GLP-1R. Taken together, our findings suggest that compounds 2 and B have different modes of action to activate GLP-1R. Further study to identify the putative binding sites will help in the discovery of orally available GLP-1R agonists.

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