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Carbone M.,Liver Unit | Mutimer D.,Liver Unit | Neuberger J.,DoNation
Transplantation | Year: 2013

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in solid organ allograft recipients and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after transplantation, so effective management will improve outcomes. In this review, we discuss the extent of the problem associated with HCV infection in donors and kidney, heart, and lung transplant candidates and recipients and recommend follow-up and treatment. Patients with end-stage kidney disease without cirrhosis and selected patients with early-stage cirrhosis can be considered for kidney transplant alone. In HCV-infected kidney allograft recipients, the progression of fibrosis should be evaluated serially by Fibroscan or serologic measures of fibrosis. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV-positive donors should be restricted to HCV-positive recipients as it is associated with a reduced time waiting for a graft and does not affect posttransplant outcomes. Hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy should be considered for all HCV-RNAYpositive kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of the baseline liver histopathology. Protease inhibitors have yet to be fully evaluated in patients with renal dysfunction and in the transplant population. As these agents may cause anemia in patients with normal renal function, tolerability may be a problem in patients with end-stage kidney disease. The impact of HCV infection on survival in heart and lung transplantation is unclear. Because of the shortage of organs, few HCV-infected patients are accepted for transplantation. Universal use of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for the screening of potential organ donors should be reserved to high-risk donors. Assays that quantify HCV core antigen may become more cost-effective than NAT for the screening of potential organ donors. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Because the demand for solid organ transplantation exceeds the availability of donated grafts, there needs to be rationing for this life-saving procedures. Criteria for selection of patients to a national transplant list and allocation of donated organs should be transparent yet there is no consistent approach to the development of such guidelines. It is suggested that selection and allocation policies should comply with minimum standards including defining of aims of the allocation process and desired outcome (whether maximizing benefit or utility or ensuring equity of access), inclusion and exclusion criteria, criteria for futility and suspension and removal from the transplant list, appeals processes, arrangements for monitoring and auditing outcomes and processes for dealing with noncompliance. Furthermore, guidelines must be consistent with legislation even though this may compete with public preference. Guidelines must be supported by all stakeholders (including health-care professionals, donor families and potential transplant candidates). However, there must also be flexibility to allow for exceptions and to support innovation and development. © 2011 The Authors. Source


Neuberger J.,DoNation
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2016

Liver transplantation (LT) services in the United Kingdom are provided by 7 designated transplant centers for a population of approximately 64 million. The number of deceased organ donors has grown, and in 2014-2015 it was 1282 (570 donation after circulatory death and 772 donation after brain death). Donor risk is increasing. In 2014-2015, there were 829 LTs from deceased and 38 from living donors. The common causes for transplantation are liver cell cancer, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-related liver disease. Livers are allocated first nationally to super-urgent listed patients and then on a zonal basis. The United Kingdom will be moving toward a national allocation scheme. The median interval between listing and transplantation is 152 days for adults awaiting their first elective transplant. Of the adults listed for the first elective transplant, 68% underwent transplantation at < 1 year; 17% are waiting; and 4% and 11% were removed or died, respectively. The 1- and 5-year adult patient survival rate from listing is 81% and 68%, respectively, and from transplantation is 92% and 80%, respectively. The transplant program is funded through general taxation and is free at the point of care to those who are eligible for National Health Service (NHS) treatment; some have to pay for medication (up to a maximum payment of US $151/year). The competent authority is the Human Tissue Authority which licenses donor characterization, retrieval, and implantation; transplant units are commissioned by NHS England and NHS Scotland. National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) promotes organ donation, maintains the organ donor register, obtains consent, and undertakes donor characterization and offering. NHSBT also maintains the national waiting list, develops and applies selection and allocation policies, monitors outcomes, and maintains the UK National Transplant Registry and commissions a national organ retrieval service. Liver Transplantation 22 1129–1135 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Source


Neuberger J.,Liver Unit | Neuberger J.,DoNation
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2016

Liver transplantation, although now a routine procedure, with defined indications and usually excellent outcomes, still has challenges. Donor shortage remains a key issue. Transplanted organs are not free of risk and may transmit cancer, infection, metabolic or autoimmune disease. Approaches to the donor shortage include use of organs from donors after circulatory death, from living donors and from those previously infected with Hepatitis B and C and even HIV for selected recipients. Normothermic regional and/or machine perfusion, whether static or pulsatile, normo- or hypothermic, are being explored and will be likely to have a major place in improving donation rates and outcomes. The main indications for liver replacement are alcoholic liver disease, HCV, non-alcoholic liver disease and liver cancer. Recent studies have shown that selected patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may also benefit from liver transplant. The advent of new and highly effective treatments for HCV, whether given before or after transplant will have a major impact on outcomes. The role of transplantation for those with liver cell cancer continues to evolve as other interventions become more effective. Immunosuppression is usually required life-long and adherence remains a challenge, especially in adolescents. Immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (primarily tacrolimus), antimetabolites (azathioprine or mycophenolate) and corticosteroids remains standard. Outcomes after transplantation are good but not normal in quality or quantity. Premature death may be due to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, de novo cancer, recurrent disease or late technical problems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Buggins E.,DoNation
Transplantation | Year: 2012

Every country needs to increase the number of deceased organ donors and the potential impact of a change to opting-out legislation remains unproven, despite the apparent association between opting out and higher donor rates. However, the Spanish model-so successful in Spain and many other countries-is not based on a requirement for opting out, and, in the UK, deceased organ donation has increased by 25% in 3 years through implementation of a series of recommendations that have transformed the infrastructure of donation. A major review of opting out concluded that it is not appropriate for the UK at this time. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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