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Powell-Wiley T.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Banks-Richard K.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | Williams-King E.,University of Utah | Ayers C.R.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

BackgroundWe compared cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (CVRFs) of community-based participatory research (CBPR) participants with the community population to better understand how CBPR participants relate to the population as a whole.MethodsGoodNEWS participants in 20 African-American churches in Dallas, Texas were compared with age/sex-matched African-Americans in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a probability-based sample of Dallas County residents. DHS characteristics were sample-weight adjusted to represent the Dallas County population.ResultsDespite having more education (college education: 75 versus 51%, P< 0.0001), GoodNEWS participants were more obese (mean body mass index: 34 versus 31 kg/m2, P< 0.001) and had more diabetes (23 versus 12%, P< 0.001) and hyperlipidemia (53 versus 14%, P< 0.001) compared with African-Americans in Dallas County. GoodNEWS participants had higher rates of treatment and control of most CVRFs (treated hyperlipidemia: 95 versus 64%, P< 0.001; controlled diabetes: 95 versus 21%, P< 0.001; controlled hypertension: 70 versus 52%, P= 0.003), were more physically active (233 versus 177 metabolic equivalent units-min/week, P< 0.0001) and less likely to smoke (10 versus 30%, P< 0.001).ConclusionsCompared with African-Americans in Dallas County, CBPR participants in church congregations were more educated, physically active and had more treatment and control of most CVRFs. Surprisingly, this motivated population had a greater obesity burden, identifying them as a prime target for CBPR-focused obesity treatment. © 2012 The Author. Source

Lo M.Y.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Holper E.M.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Banks K.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Murphy S.A.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m2 (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Shimizu K.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | Libby P.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | Rocha V.Z.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | Folco E.J.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND-: The calcium-binding proteins myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8 (S100A8) and MRP-14 (S100A9) form MRP-8/14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9, calprotectin) that regulate myeloid cell function and inflammatory responses and serve as early serum markers for monitoring acute allograft rejection. Despite functioning as a proinflammatory mediator, the pathophysiological role of MRP-8/14 complexes in cardiovascular disease is incompletely defined. This study investigated the role of MRP-8/14 in cardiac allograft rejection using MRP-14 mice that lack MRP-8/14 complexes. METHODS AND RESULTS-: We examined parenchymal rejection after major histocompatibility complex class II allomismatched cardiac transplantation (bm12 donor heart and B6 recipients) in wild-type (WT) and MRP-14 recipients. Allograft survival averaged 5.9±2.9 weeks (n=10) in MRP-14 recipients compared with >12 weeks (n=15; P<0.0001) in WT recipients. Two weeks after transplantation, allografts in MRP-14 recipients had significantly higher parenchymal rejection scores (2.8±0.8; n=8) than did WT recipients (0.8±0.8; n=12; P<0.0001). Compared with WT recipients, allografts in MRP-14 recipients had significantly increased T-cell and macrophage infiltration and increased mRNA levels of interferon-γ and interferon-γ-associated chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11), interleukin-6, and interleukin-17 with significantly higher levels of Th17 cells. MRP-14 recipients also had significantly more lymphocytes in the adjacent para-aortic lymph nodes than did WT recipients (cells per lymph node: 23.7±0.7×10 for MRP-14 versus 6.0±0.2×10 for WT; P<0.0001). The dendritic cells (DCs) of the MRP-14 recipients of bm12 hearts expressed significantly higher levels of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 than did those of WT recipients 2 weeks after transplantation. Mixed leukocyte reactions with allo-endothelial cell-primed MRP-14 DCs resulted in significantly higher antigen-presenting function than reactions using WT DCs. Ovalbumin-primed MRP-14 DCs augmented proliferation of OT-II (ovalbumin-specific T cell receptor transgenic) CD4 T cells with increased interleukin-2 and interferon-γ production. Cardiac allografts of B6 major histocompatibility complex class II hosts and of B6 WT hosts receiving MRP-14 DCs had significantly augmented inflammatory cell infiltration and accelerated allograft rejection compared with WT DCs from transferred recipient allografts. Bone marrow-derived MRP-14 DCs infected with MRP-8 and MRP-14 retroviral vectors showed significantly decreased CD80 and CD86 expression compared with controls, indicating that MRP-8/14 regulates B7-costimulatory molecule expression. CONCLUSIONS-: Our results indicate that MRP-14 regulates B7 molecule expression and reduces antigen presentation by DCs and subsequent T-cell priming. The absence of MRP-14 markedly increased T-cell activation and exacerbated allograft rejection, indicating a previously unrecognized role for MRP-14 in immune cell biology. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Neeland I.J.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | Neeland I.J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Sulistio M.S.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Stoller D.A.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Electrocardiology | Year: 2012

Background: The electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of ST-segment deviation in myocardial infarction is integral to the proper assessment of the location, extent, and functional significance of the infarct but may be modified by the underlying coronary artery anatomy. Methods: We describe the ECG findings in 2 cases of proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) associated with 3-vessel coronary artery disease. Results: Both patients had atypical ECG patterns of ST-segment elevation in leads V 2, I, and aVL and ST-segment depression with positive T waves suggestive of extensive subendocardial ischemia in leads II, III, aVF, and V 3 through V 6; acute proximal LAD occlusion and concomitant 3-vessel coronary artery disease were observed angiographically. Conclusion: Electrocardiographic changes in proximal LAD STEMI may be modified by the presence of significant atherosclerotic disease elsewhere in the coronary vasculature. Recognition of this ECG pattern may aid the clinician in the rapid identification of high-risk STEMI. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Matulevicius S.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Matulevicius S.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | Huff L.C.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Huff L.C.,Donald ynolds Cardiovascular Clinical Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) for coronary artery calcification can potentially evaluate liver fat, another marker of cardiovascular risk. We compared quantitative estimates of hepatic steatosis measured by EBCT with those obtained by a well-validated, accurate-measure, magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H MRS). Methods: EBCT and 1H MRS were performed in 2159 subjects from the Dallas Heart Study. Forty subjects were randomly selected from each of 5 subgroups of liver fat percent by 1H MRS (n = 200). EBCT average liver attenuation (HU) was determined in a 1-to 2-cm circular region of interest over the liver lobes. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. Using a previously defined 1H MRS hepatic steatosis cut point (>5.5%), an optimized EBCT liver attenuation cut point was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: 1H MRS liver fat content and EBCT average right lobe liver attenuation were moderately negatively correlated (r =-0.64, P < 0.0001) in all subjects and in those with 1H MRS hepatic steatosis (r =-0.71, P < 0.0001). This correlation did not improve with attenuation correction of the EBCT data using a standard calcium phantom or statistical transformation. Using an optimized receiver operating characteristic EBCT cut point (64.5 HU), sensitivity was 78% and specificity was 72% for detecting 1H MRS hepatic steatosis, with a high false negative rate. Risk factors for hepatic steatosis (obesity, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome) were more strongly correlated with 1H MRS than EBCT liver fat measures. Conclusions: Liver attenuation on EBCT acquired for coronary artery calcification screening correlates modestly with 1H MRS measures of liver fat content, with a high false negative rate. Copyright © 2011 by The American Federation for Medical Research ISSN: 1081-5589. Source

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