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St. Louis, MO, United States

The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center is a not-for-profit scientific facility located in Creve Coeur, Missouri, United States. The Center's mission is to "improve the human condition through plant science".Founded in 1998 by William Henry Danforth, a cardiologist, the Center was established through a $60 million gift from the Danforth Foundation, a $50 million gift from the Monsanto Fund, the donation of 40 acres of land from Monsanto, and $25 million in tax credits from the State of Missouri. Wikipedia.

Umen J.G.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2014

The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. All rights reserved.

Baxter I.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Briefings in Functional Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2010

Ionomics is the study of elemental accumulation in living systems using high-throughput elemental profiling. This approach has been applied extensively in plants for forward and reverse genetics, screening diversity panels, and modeling of physiological states. In this review, I will discuss some of the advantages and limitations of the ionomics approach as well as the important parameters to consider when designing ionomics experiments, and how to evaluate ionomics data. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

Sayre R.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
BioScience | Year: 2010

There is growing recognition that microalgae are among the most productive biological systems for generating biomass and capturing carbon. Further efficiencies are gained by harvesting 100% of the biomass, much more than is possible in terrestrial biomass production systems. Microalgae's ability to transport bicarbonate into cells makes them well suited to capture carbon. Carbon dioxide or bicarbonate-capturing efficiencies as high as 90% have been reported in open ponds. The scale of microalgal production facilities necessary to capture carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions from stationary point sources such as power stations and cement kilns is also manageable; thus, microalgae can potentially be exploited for CO2 capture and sequestration. In this article, I discuss possible strategies using microalgae to sequester CO2 with reduced environmental consequences. © 2010 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

Umen J.G.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2011

Sexual reproduction in Volvocine algae coevolved with the acquisition of multicellularity. Unicellular genera such as Chlamydomonas and small colonial genera from this group have classical mating types with equal-sized gametes, while larger multicellular genera such as Volvox have differentiated males and females that produce sperm and eggs respectively. Newly available sequence from the Volvox and Chlamydomonas genomes and mating loci open up the potential to investigate how sex-determining regions co-evolve with major changes in development and sexual reproduction. The expanded size and sequence divergence between the male and female haplotypes of the Volvox mating locus (MT) not only provide insights into how the colonial Volvocine algae might have evolved sexual dimorphism, but also raise questions about why the putative ancestral-like MT locus in Chlamydomonas shows less divergence between haplotypes than expected. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Kellogg E.A.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2015

Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a powerful model system for studying the genetics of flowering plants. Originally chosen for its phylogenetic proximity to the large-genome cereal crops wheat and barley, it is proving to be useful for more than simply providing markers for comparative mapping. Studies in B. distachyon have provided new insight into the structure and physiology of plant cell walls, the development and chemical composition of endosperm, and the genetic basis for cold tolerance. Recent work on auxin transport has uncovered mechanisms that apply to all angiosperms other than Arabidopsis. In addition to the areas in which it is currently used, B. distachyon is uniquely suited for studies of floral development, vein patterning, the controls of the perennial versus annual habit, and genome organization. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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