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Bacnotan, Philippines

The Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, more often referred to by the acronym "DMMMSU" is the state university serving the province of La Union in the Philippines. Its main campus is in Bacnotan, La Union. It was created by former president Ferdinand Marcos by using Presidential Decree 1778 to combine a number of state-run schools in La Union into a single state college in 1981. Like Mariano Marcos State University in Ilocos Norte, it is named for the former president's father, Mariano Marcos.Before 1993, DMMMSU occupied seven campuses throughout the province. After a reorganization that year, these campuses were grouped into three administrative units, simply called the North La Union Main Campus , the Mid La Union Campus , and the South La Union Campus . Each unit is headed by a chancellor, while the whole system is headed by the university president Atty. Benjamin P. Sapitula . Wikipedia.

Estoque R.C.,University of Tsukuba | Estoque R.C.,Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University | Murayama Y.,University of Tsukuba
Applied Geography | Year: 2012

The main purpose of this study is to examine the potential impacts of the past and future land use/cover (LUC) changes on the ecosystem services of Baguio city, the Philippines, and discuss their implications for policy development and implementation. Remote sensing-derived LUC maps for 1988, 1998 and 2009, along with GEOMOD, a Geographic Information Systems-based LUC change model, and ecosystem service value (ESV) coefficients were used to facilitate the analysis. The results revealed a decrease in the ESV of Baguio for the past 21 years (1988-2009), of which a substantial amount was due to loss of forest cover. Consequently, the human-to-ESV (H-ESV) ratio has decreased over the years. The scenario-based LUC change analysis revealed that if the urban LUC change pattern continues, the total ESV and the H-ESV ratio will also continue to decrease in 2020, especially if the forest cover is not fully protected and conserved. Geospatial tools and techniques facilitate exploratory analysis critical to the understanding of the potential impacts of future LUC changes under different scenarios. Our results highlighted that under the great pressure of urbanization, there is a need to strengthen the proper implementation of policies in order to maintain and improve ecosystem services. Although there are limitations to the estimated ESVs of Baguio to be taken into account in future studies, the magnitude of the estimated changes in the LUC is substantial. Thus, it may still be possible to draw general inferences about the effect of the perceived LUC changes on the estimated ESVs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Estoque R.C.,University of Tsukuba | Estoque R.C.,Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University | Murayama Y.,University of Tsukuba
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2013

This study analyzes the dynamics of the socio-ecological system of Baguio City, the summer capital of the Philippines, in order to derive meaningful information for use in planning its sustainable development. Remote sensing data and geographic information systems techniques, in conjunction with spatial metrics and socio-economic information, were used to facilitate the analysis. The spatial and socio-economic components of Baguio's rapid urbanization over the past 21 years (1988-2009) were the major factors that contributed to dramatic changes in the setting's natural landscape, as indicated by an almost threefold increase in its built-up area, at the expense of other land-use/land-cover classes. Its rapid growth has seen the city's population exceed its designed ceiling of 25,000 people by a factor of at least twelve. Such landscape changes and population growth have resulted in a substantial decrease in the overall annual ecosystem service value (ESV) of Baguio of approximately 60%. The human-to-ESV ratio in the city has also decreased over this same period, from 1:31 (US$/year) in 1988 to just 1:7 in 2009. Although Baguio has enjoyed economic, political and social prominence for more than a century, its rapid population growth and urban expansion are now exerting pressure on its natural landscape, jeopardizing the environmental sustainability of this highly valued hill station. This study offers important insights to all, but especially those in fast-urbanizing regions, as Baguio's case offers learning experience valuable for achieving more successful landscape and urban planning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Olarte E.I.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Olarte E.I.,Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University | Herrera A.A.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Villasenor I.M.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Jacinto S.D.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Philippine Agricultural Scientist | Year: 2010

Free radicals have significant effects on the structure and general function of the cell. They play a role in the body's defense against infection by microorganisms. At the same time, they cause a number of diseases by inducing damage to DNA and other important biomolecules. Hence, the search for additional free radical scavengers or antioxidants, especially from plant sources, is of prime importance. Leaf extracts from Cassia alata L. (locally known as 'akapulko'), traditionally used for the treatment of a variety of diseases, were evaluated as free radical scavengers using the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl hydrochloride (DPPH) assay. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed scavenging activity of 100%, comparable to gallic acid, a widely used antioxidant. Repeated column fractionation of the EtOAc fraction yielded a new indole alkaloid, 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-indole-3-carboxylic acid, which demonstrated a dose-dependent scavenging activity against DPPH with an IC 50 of 0.0311 μM ± 0.002, indicating strong antioxidant potential.

Bernardino M.A.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos | Bernardino M.A.,Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University | Castillo-Israel K.A.T.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos | Serrano E.P.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos | And 2 more authors.
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2016

The efficacy of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) applied as a post-cutting treatment on freshcut 'Queen' pineapple was determined in order to assess its potential to maintain the storage quality of fresh-cut 'Queen' pineapple, a major Philippine variety. 1-MCP at a concentration of 1 uL L-1 was applied post-cutting by injecting the gas into packed fresh-cut 'Queen' pineapples in polypropylene tray overwrapped with LDPE stretchable film. The packed fruits were stored at 5°C and monitored for headspace gas concentrations (ethylene, CO2, O2), visual quality deterioration parameters and microbial deterioration indicators. 1-MCP was found to effectively elicit its ethylene inhibiting action as shown by lowered headspace ethylene by about 40% at day 4 storage. Headspace CO2 levels were likewise lowered by 1-MCP to about 50% at day 2 while higher headspace O2 levels were generally obtained which had the highest increase at day 2 (about 18%) which created an improved modified atmosphere condition inside the package compared with the control. No significant effects on the visual quality were noted throughout storage. Color differences were however observed, with 1-MCP treatments having significantly higher lightness values and higher hue values at day 2. 1-MCP did not affect the microbial growth (aerobic bacteria, acid-forming bacteria, yeasts and molds, coliforms) on the samples during storage. Aerobic bacteria count was slightly lower than the control at day 3. The fresh-cut pineapple packaged in the manner described had a shelf-life of 3 days based on the microbial limits set by EU countries which is log 7 cfu/mL aerobic plate count. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which demonstrated the effects of 1-MCP on fresh-cut pineapple of the 'Queen' variety. © 2008 IFRJ.

Sapitula B.P.,Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Aside from their prime mandate of providing Instruction, Research, and Extension to the publics, state colleges and universities (SUCs) in the Philippines are also an indispensable instrumentality in helping address local and global issues such as food security. It is the intent of this paper to share what SUCs in the Philippines are doing towards enhancing food security. It specifically ventilates some of the significant experiences and best practices of Philippine SUCs, which are seen to bring about a significant dent in helping realize the World Food Summit Plan of Action. In coming up with this paper, documentary analyses, interview with key informants, review of related literature, and personal accounts on relevant University experiences were employed.

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