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Avignon, France

Chourghal N.,University of Bordj Bou Arreridj | Lhomme J.P.,2 Place Viala | Huard F.,Domaine Saint Paul | Aidaoui A.,Laboratoire Of Maitrise Of Leau En Agriculture
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2015

According to IPCC reports, the Mediterranean basin and particularly the North African area are amongst the most vulnerable regions to climate change. However, the information concerning the North African zone is very limited, and studies on climate change have never been conducted in Algeria up to now. This paper aims at bridging this information gap and initiates a first research on the impact of climate change on durum wheat cropping, the most strategic commodity in the food system and in the national economy of Algeria. Climate projections for the distant future (2071–2100), obtained from the ARPEGE-Climate model of Météo-France run under the medium A1B SRES scenario, are introduced into a simple agrometeorological crop model previously validated with field data. Two options for the sowing date are assessed: a dynamical date, chosen within the traditional sowing window by means of a rainfall criterion, or a prescribed date with supplemental irrigation on the same day. Crop development is modelled using thermal time, and maximum yield is determined from the accumulation of solar radiation. A water stress index is inferred from a daily water balance model, and actual yield is estimated from potential yield corrected by the water stress index. The model also takes into account the occurrence of dry periods during the growing season, which can induce partial or total failure of the crop cycle. Two stations, representative of two of the three agroclimatic areas where durum wheat is grown, were chosen: Algiers in the central northern region and Bordj Bou Arreridj in the eastern high plains. Climate change is not similar for both areas, but a tendency towards aridity is clear especially in spring. Future temperature and potential evapotranspiration increase in both regions with a maximum in spring and summer. In Algiers, rainfall will decrease throughout the year and mainly in spring and summer. Conversely, summer precipitation in Bordj Bou Arreridj will increase significantly. In both regions, the autumn rains will increase in the future climate, the possibilities of early sowing will be improved, crop cycle will be reduced, and harvest will take place earlier. In Algiers, yields tend to decrease in the future climate, whereas in Bordj Bou Arreridj, a dynamical (earlier) sowing will tend to keep yields at their current level. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Lasseur J.,Domaine Saint Paul | Bataille J.-F.,Institute Of Lelevage Mre | Beylier B.,Center Detudes Et Of Realisations Pastorales Alpes Mediterranee Mre | Etienne M.,Domaine Saint Paul | And 2 more authors.
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2010

Modelling the relationships between farming and land dynamics to accompany actors in transforming practices requires the elaboration of methodologies and special devices. Such developments should involve a diversity of actors and take their knowledge into account. We will present a case study of a participatory approach for modelling the relationships between sheep farming and land dynamics implemented at a regional scale (60000 ha). Performed simulations make it possible to illustrate the importance of taking the diversity of present forms of sheep farming (structural characteristics, farming practices) into account to forecast future relationships between activities and landscape dynamics. Source

This article lies within the framework of a transverse research project which groups 7 case studies relating to the analysis of the dynamics of change in extensive livestock activities and their impacts on resources and landscapes at a territory scale. Carried out in contrasted situations, they relied on the participative construction of Agent-Based Models. The object of this article is to analyze, from a comparative point of view, the participation of actors, including researchers, in these participative research projects.To analyze the nature and terms of the partnership we distinguished four categories of partners and broke up the research process into six phases. The involvement of the partners is described starting from the formulation of the question at the origin of the project up to the phase of exploration of scenarios. Although all the projects adopt a companion modelling approach, the implication of the various categories of partners differs according to the projects. It seems related to the objectives of modelling and in particular to the predominance of knowledge generation or action. At least three types of participation can thus be distinguished: passive, consultative or interactive. The researchers themselves often have a central position in the process which leads them to take on the responsibility project animation. Source

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