Dom Afonso III Higher Institute
Loule, Portugal
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Pereira T.,Catholic University of Portugal | Pereira T.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Abreu A.M.,University of Lisbon | Castro-Caldas A.,Catholic University of Portugal
Perceptual and Motor Skills | Year: 2013

This study aimed to assess how the capacity to acquire, form and consolidate motor memories might vary across diff erent tasks and diff erent groups (with and without motor expertise). 20 athletes and 21 non-athletes were tested on fi ve motor tasks: a motor sequence task, a reaction time task, two visuo-manual tasks, and a balance task. Performance was measured before training (T0), immediately after training (T1), and 24 hours after training (T2), to assess motor acquisition and motor memory formation and consolidation. T2 performance was higher in both groups, without additional training, on the motor sequence task, reaction time task and one of the visuo-manual tasks (Pouring Task). Athletes had better baseline performance at T0 than non-athletes on these tasks. Findings suggest that diff erential formation and consolidation processes underlie diff erent motor tasks. Although athletes did not outperform non-athletes on motor memory consolidation, they were more effi cient in acquiring novel tasks, perhaps because the required motor schemas might have been based on previously acquired ones. © Perceptual & Motor Skills 2013.

Pechorro P.,University of Algarve | Goncalves R.A.,University of Minho | Maroco J.,ISPA University | Gama A.P.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2014

The objective of the present study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquency. Using a sample of 543 young males from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of high psychopathic traits (n = 281) and a group of low psychopathic traits (n = 262) were formed based on the Portuguese version of Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Results showed that youths with high psychopathic traits start engaging in criminal activities earlier in life, come into contact with the justice system earlier in life, and have higher levels of conduct disorder, behavior problems, and delinquent behaviors as well as lower levels of self-esteem. © The Author(s) 2012.

Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Macias F.,University of Santiago de Compostela | de Varennes A.,University of Lisbon
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2016

Purpose: São Domingos mine area (Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt) contains several mine wastes with different environmental hazard which are disposed irregularly over a large area. This study aimed to evaluate the following: (1) soil enzymatic activities, chemical quality of leachates and Cistus ladanifer germination in Technosols composed of gossan or sulfide wastes from the mine and amendment mixtures (organic and inorganic); (2) the efficiency of a layer of gossan over sulfide wastes to improve rehabilitation of the more hazardous waste. Materials and methods: Technosols were composed of gossan or sulfide wastes and amendment mixtures, at 12 and 30 g/kg, containing organic/inorganic wastes from agriculture and distilleries in equal proportion. Three microcosm assays, under controlled conditions, were carried out: Gossan/sulfide wastes and respective Technosols (assays 1-2); (assay 3) Sulfide wastes, with/without amendments, incubated during 4 months and then with an application of a thin overlayer of gossan with/without the same amendments. Cistus ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment while the remainder was left bare. After 3 and 9 months of incubation, composite samples of the materials were collected and dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities were determined. In same sampling periods, percolation leachates were analysed for anions and cations concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity. Results and discussion: Technosols with gossan wastes were significantly different (p < 0.05) due to higher dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activities, better seedling growth and improved chemical characteristics of leachates. Although electrical conductivity and concentrations of some elements (e.g. As and SO4) in leachates from Technosols with sulfide wastes were reduced (>50 % of EC and 23–99 % depending on element, Technosol and sampling period), the amendments did not prevent sulfide oxidation and acid generation, improve enzymatic activities or allow seed germination. Higher elements concentrations in leachates were obtained with the overlapping of two Technosols or mine wastes, compared to the leachates from assays with a single mine waste. Application of a gossan/Technosol layer over sulfide wastes allowed C. ladanifer germination but plants died after ≈50 days. Conclusions: The use of Technosols derived from gossan or sulfide wastes may be an efficient solution for rehabilitation of these mine wastes. However, the results with sulfide wastes were not encouraging. The use of a Technosol obtained from gossan wastes seems be a promising approach to isolate sulfide wastes from air and initiate their revegetation, but this technology requires further improvements, namely to prevent the ascension of salts by capillarity. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Batista M.J.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2014

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the variation on the accumulation and translocation of potentially harmful chemical elements and nutrients (As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Cistus ladanifer L. belonging to populations growing in different mine areas from the Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt (Brancanes, Caveira, Chança, Lousal, Neves Corvo, São Domingos). These mines are abandoned (except Neves Corvo that is still operating) and have different contamination levels. Materials and methods: Composite samples of soils (n = 31), developed on different mine wastes and/or host rock, and C. ladanifer plants (roots and shoots) were collected in the mine areas. Soils were characterized for pH, NPK and organic C, by classical methodologies. Soils (total fraction-four acid digestion, and available fraction-extracted with aqueous solution of diluted organic acids, simulating rizosphere conditions) and plants (ashing followed by acid digestion) elemental concentrations were determined by ICP. Soil-plant transfer and translocation coefficients were calculated. Principal components analysis in both ways, the classical method and a second approach with adaptations used mostly in multivariate statistical processes control data, were done in order to compare the plants populations. Results and discussion: Soils had large heterogeneity in their characteristics. Caveira, Lousal, Neves Corvo and São Domingos soils showed the highest total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Independently of the mine, available fractions of elements were low. Intra- and inter-population variations in accumulation and translocation of elements were evaluated. Plants were not accumulators of the majority of the analysed elements. Nutrients were mainly translocated from roots to shoots, while trace elements were stored in roots (except in Neves Corvo for As and Pb, and São Domingos for As). Elements concentrations in plant populations from Lousal, Chança and São Domingos did not present much variation. Brancanes soils and plants presented strong differences compared to other areas. Conclusions: Cistus ladanifer plants are able to survive in mining areas with polymetallic contamination at different elements concentrations in total and available fraction. This species presented variations inter- and intra-populations in accumulation and translocation of chemical elements; however, all studied populations, except Brancanes, can belong to the same population cluster. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Magalhaes M.C.F.,University of Aveiro | Fernandes E.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2012

Plants from Cistus genus show a great plasticity and are able to grow both in contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Cistus salviifolius L. was identified in several mines from Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt (PIPB) while Cistus populifolius L. was collected in 2009 in Chança and Caveira mines for the first time. In these mine areas, a hybrid of both species Cistus×. hybridus Pourr. was also collected being this its first report from those areas. This study aimed to compare the biogeochemical behavior of the three Cistus species growing in the polymetallic mine areas of Caveira, Chança and São Domingos (PIPB). Their possible use in phytoremediation programs of multielemental contaminated soils was evaluated.Soils from Caveira and São Domingos presented high concentrations of various chemical elements and were considered seriously contaminated with As (13-3030. mg/kg), Cu (159-1750. mg/kg), Pb (932-9210. mg/kg) and Sb (23-486. mg/kg), and with severe contamination of Zn (33-1010. mg/kg). Chança soils presented the lowest trace elements contamination.The three species showed tolerance to moderate acid soils (4.2. <. pH. <. 6.1), with low fertility and high multielemental contamination. Cistus×. hybridus, C. populifolius and C. salviifolius growing in the same mine area are not significantly different for elemental concentration, except for Fe and Sb. Similar behavior was observed for C. populifolius and hybrid growing in different mine areas (Caveira and Chança). Besides the different concentration of each chemical element in Cistus plants, no significant differences were observed in the translocation capacity from roots to shoots for all species: non essential elements and Fe were stored in roots (translocation coefficient: 0.1-0.9) and macro- and micronutrients were transported to the aerial part (translocation coefficient: 1.0-7.7) due to their metabolic functions.All Cistus populations can be considered Mn accumulators, and non-accumulators of As, Cu, Fe, Pb and Sb as well as Caveira plants for Zn (soil-plant transfer coefficient <. 1). Chança and São Domingos plant populations showed both, accumulators and non-accumulators behavior for Zn. The studied plant species did not show significant ecological variability intra or inter-population and can contribute to the rehabilitation of mining areas with semiarid characteristics. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Ferreira M.,University of Lisbon | Magalhaes M.C.F.,University of Aveiro
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2012

Metal mining in Caveira and São Domingos (Portugal) generated large volumes of tailings with high total concentrations of trace elements, low pH and fertility. Autochthones plants growing spontaneously in mine areas are usually tolerant to unfavorable characteristics of tailings. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the behavior (trace elements uptake, accumulation and translocation from roots to shoots) of different populations of Cistus salviifolius plants growing spontaneously in contaminated and non-contaminated sites in order to evaluate the potential of this plant species for soils and mine wastes phytostabilization. Cistus salviifolius plants (roots and aerial parts) and soils were collected, in two mine areas (São Domingos and Caveira) and a reference area (Grândola), and were analyzed for arsenic, antimony, copper, lead, manganese and zinc concentrations. Cistus salviifolius showed tolerance for moderate acid soils (5.34 < pH. < 5.72), with low fertility and multielemental contamination (arsenic, antimony, copper, lead and zinc). The same elements soil available fractions, extracted with ammonium acetate, were low (<. 7.2% of total concentration) because these elements are mainly associated with the residual fraction, and iron oxides. However, the association of arsenic (33-43% of total arsenic in both mining areas) and lead (58% of total lead in Caveira) with organic matter in mine soils, represents a potential environmental risk. All the plant populations presented translocation of nutrients (copper, manganese and zinc) to the aerial parts and storage of phytotoxic elements (arsenic, antimony and lead) in roots. None population was considered trace elements accumulator and the elements did not exceeded the phytotoxic concentrations (only arsenic in the aerial parts of São Domingos plants) and metal toxicity limits for domestic animals. Cistus salviifolius is considered suitable for phytostabilization of mining wastes in areas with semiarid characteristics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Nabais C.,University of Coimbra | Magalhaes M.C.F.,University of Aveiro
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to evaluate trace element distribution in soils developed on gossan mine wastes and their bioavailability for Cistus ladanifer. The ability of this shrub to accumulate these trace elements and its germination were analysed to confirm the suitability of this species for phytostabilization of mining areas in Mediterranean conditions. Plants and soils were collected in São Domingos mine and Pomarão (non-contaminated site). Concentration of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils (total and associated with different soil phases) and roots/leaves/seeds were analysed. Mine soils showed contamination with great total concentrations: As (2643. mg/kg), Cu (226. mg/kg) and Pb (7343. mg/kg). Soil available fractions were small (<. 2.8% of total). These elements are mainly associated with residual fraction, and Fe and Mn oxides. The low As and Pb availability in São Domingos soils can be related to the presence of iron(III) lead(II) arsenates in the residual fraction. Arsenic and Zn concentrations in leaves and Cu and Zn in seeds depend on population and soil characteristics but seed viability was not different in both sites. São Domingos leaves reached toxic values for Pb due to high Pb translocation from roots to leaves (0.67-1.46), however no visible phytotoxicity signs were observed. In the São Domingos plant population, As root storage was observed. Plants from both areas were Zn-accumulators while only plants from Pomarão were Pb-accumulators. Cistus ladanifer is suitable for phytostabilization of mine soils with similar characteristics. Seed germination from São Domingos is suitable for revegetation of this mine area. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Saraiva J.A.,University of Aveiro
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

This study aimed to: i) evaluate the accumulation and translocation patterns of potentially hazardous elements into the Lavandula pedunculata and their influence in the concentrations of nutrients; and ii) compare some physiological responses associated with oxidative stress (concentration of chlorophylls (Chla, Chlb and total), carotenoids, and total protein) and several components involved in tolerance mechanisms (concentrations of proline and acid-soluble thiols and total/specific activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), in plants growing in soils with a multielemental contamination and non-contaminated. Composite samples of soils, developed on mine wastes and/or host rocks, and L. pedunculata (roots and shoots) were collected in São Domingos mine (SE of Portugal) and in a reference area with non-contaminated soils, Corte do Pinto, with the same climatic conditions. São Domingos soils had high total concentrations of several hazardous elements (e.g. As and Pb) but their available fractions were small (mainly <5.8 % of the total). Translocation behaviour of elements was not clear according to the physiological importance of the elements. In general, plant shoots from São Domingos had the highest elements concentrations, but only As, Mn and Zn reached phytotoxic concentrations. Concentration of Chlb in shoots from São Domingos was higher than those from Corte do Pinto. No significant differences were obtained between concentrations of Chla, total protein, proline and acid-soluble thiols in shoots collected in both areas, as well as SOD activity (total and specific) and specific CAT activity. Total CAT activity varied with population being lower in the shoots of the plants from São Domingos, but no correlation was obtained between this enzymatic activity and the concentrations of the studied elements in shoots. Lavandula pedunculata plants are able to survive in soils developed on different mine wastes with multielemental contamination and low fertility showing no symptoms (visible and physiological) of phytotoxicity or deficiency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Vigo, University of Lisbon and Dom Afonso III Higher Institute
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2016

Cistus monspeliensis L. is a species that grows spontaneously in contaminated mining areas from the Iberian Pyrite Belt. This species can have high concentrations of Zn in the shoots without visible signs of phytotoxicity. In order to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, C. monspeliensis was grown at several concentrations of Zn(2+) (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000M) and the effects of this metal on plant development and on the defence mechanisms against oxidative stress were evaluated. Independently of the treatment, Zn was mainly retained in the roots. The plants with the highest concentrations of Zn showed toxicity symptoms such as chlorosis, low leaf size and decrease in biomass production. At 2000M of Zn, the dry biomass of the shoots decreased significantly. High concentrations of Zn in shoots did not induce deficiencies of other nutrients, except Cu. Plants with high concentrations of Zn had low amounts of chlorophyll, anthocyanins and glutathione and high contents of H2O2. The highest concentrations of Zn in shoots of C. monspeliensis triggered defence mechanisms against oxidative stress, namely by triggering antioxidative enzyme activity and by direct reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging through carotenoids, that are unaffected by stress due to stabilisation by ascorbic acid.

Agapito S.M.,FARO | Cardoso De Sousa F.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute
Revista Portuguesa de Saude Publica | Year: 2010

Introduction: This study aims at providing evidence that the job satisfaction of a sample of administrative personnel and medical assistants, in a public health institution, differs according with the degree of perceived job absenteeism. Material and methods: A questionnaire adapted from the Professional Satisfaction Scale (Lima, Vala & Monteiro, 1994), was administered to a sample of opportunity of 200 subjects (77 administrative personnel and 123 medical assistants). Results: The analyses of the answers allowed to conclude that job satisfaction influenced absenteeism, and this influence was not detected in every aspect of professional satisfaction but only in those related with the factor Fundamental satisfaction (only in Relationships with colleagues), in the category of Medical assistants; and in the factor Material conditions, especially in Promotion perspectives, in the category of Administrative personnel. Conclusions: The analyses revealed two different populations as to the factors which affected their feelings of satisfaction, in its relationship with absenteeism, suggesting, as recommendations, a particular attention to procedural and distributive justice to the job shift system in use, with the former, as well as to the connection between absenteeism and the degree of satisfaction with material aspects, in the later. © 2010 Published by Elsevier España, S. L. on behalf of Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública. All rights reserved.

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