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Pechorro P.,University of Algarve | Goncalves R.A.,University of Minho | Maroco J.,ISPA University | Gama A.P.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2014

The objective of the present study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquency. Using a sample of 543 young males from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of high psychopathic traits (n = 281) and a group of low psychopathic traits (n = 262) were formed based on the Portuguese version of Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Results showed that youths with high psychopathic traits start engaging in criminal activities earlier in life, come into contact with the justice system earlier in life, and have higher levels of conduct disorder, behavior problems, and delinquent behaviors as well as lower levels of self-esteem. © The Author(s) 2012.

Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Ferreira M.,University of Lisbon | Magalhaes M.C.F.,University of Aveiro
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2012

Metal mining in Caveira and São Domingos (Portugal) generated large volumes of tailings with high total concentrations of trace elements, low pH and fertility. Autochthones plants growing spontaneously in mine areas are usually tolerant to unfavorable characteristics of tailings. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the behavior (trace elements uptake, accumulation and translocation from roots to shoots) of different populations of Cistus salviifolius plants growing spontaneously in contaminated and non-contaminated sites in order to evaluate the potential of this plant species for soils and mine wastes phytostabilization. Cistus salviifolius plants (roots and aerial parts) and soils were collected, in two mine areas (São Domingos and Caveira) and a reference area (Grândola), and were analyzed for arsenic, antimony, copper, lead, manganese and zinc concentrations. Cistus salviifolius showed tolerance for moderate acid soils (5.34 < pH. < 5.72), with low fertility and multielemental contamination (arsenic, antimony, copper, lead and zinc). The same elements soil available fractions, extracted with ammonium acetate, were low (<. 7.2% of total concentration) because these elements are mainly associated with the residual fraction, and iron oxides. However, the association of arsenic (33-43% of total arsenic in both mining areas) and lead (58% of total lead in Caveira) with organic matter in mine soils, represents a potential environmental risk. All the plant populations presented translocation of nutrients (copper, manganese and zinc) to the aerial parts and storage of phytotoxic elements (arsenic, antimony and lead) in roots. None population was considered trace elements accumulator and the elements did not exceeded the phytotoxic concentrations (only arsenic in the aerial parts of São Domingos plants) and metal toxicity limits for domestic animals. Cistus salviifolius is considered suitable for phytostabilization of mining wastes in areas with semiarid characteristics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Saraiva J.A.,University of Aveiro
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

This study aimed to: i) evaluate the accumulation and translocation patterns of potentially hazardous elements into the Lavandula pedunculata and their influence in the concentrations of nutrients; and ii) compare some physiological responses associated with oxidative stress (concentration of chlorophylls (Chla, Chlb and total), carotenoids, and total protein) and several components involved in tolerance mechanisms (concentrations of proline and acid-soluble thiols and total/specific activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)), in plants growing in soils with a multielemental contamination and non-contaminated. Composite samples of soils, developed on mine wastes and/or host rocks, and L. pedunculata (roots and shoots) were collected in São Domingos mine (SE of Portugal) and in a reference area with non-contaminated soils, Corte do Pinto, with the same climatic conditions. São Domingos soils had high total concentrations of several hazardous elements (e.g. As and Pb) but their available fractions were small (mainly <5.8 % of the total). Translocation behaviour of elements was not clear according to the physiological importance of the elements. In general, plant shoots from São Domingos had the highest elements concentrations, but only As, Mn and Zn reached phytotoxic concentrations. Concentration of Chlb in shoots from São Domingos was higher than those from Corte do Pinto. No significant differences were obtained between concentrations of Chla, total protein, proline and acid-soluble thiols in shoots collected in both areas, as well as SOD activity (total and specific) and specific CAT activity. Total CAT activity varied with population being lower in the shoots of the plants from São Domingos, but no correlation was obtained between this enzymatic activity and the concentrations of the studied elements in shoots. Lavandula pedunculata plants are able to survive in soils developed on different mine wastes with multielemental contamination and low fertility showing no symptoms (visible and physiological) of phytotoxicity or deficiency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon | Batista M.J.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2014

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the variation on the accumulation and translocation of potentially harmful chemical elements and nutrients (As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Cistus ladanifer L. belonging to populations growing in different mine areas from the Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt (Brancanes, Caveira, Chança, Lousal, Neves Corvo, São Domingos). These mines are abandoned (except Neves Corvo that is still operating) and have different contamination levels. Materials and methods: Composite samples of soils (n = 31), developed on different mine wastes and/or host rock, and C. ladanifer plants (roots and shoots) were collected in the mine areas. Soils were characterized for pH, NPK and organic C, by classical methodologies. Soils (total fraction-four acid digestion, and available fraction-extracted with aqueous solution of diluted organic acids, simulating rizosphere conditions) and plants (ashing followed by acid digestion) elemental concentrations were determined by ICP. Soil-plant transfer and translocation coefficients were calculated. Principal components analysis in both ways, the classical method and a second approach with adaptations used mostly in multivariate statistical processes control data, were done in order to compare the plants populations. Results and discussion: Soils had large heterogeneity in their characteristics. Caveira, Lousal, Neves Corvo and São Domingos soils showed the highest total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Independently of the mine, available fractions of elements were low. Intra- and inter-population variations in accumulation and translocation of elements were evaluated. Plants were not accumulators of the majority of the analysed elements. Nutrients were mainly translocated from roots to shoots, while trace elements were stored in roots (except in Neves Corvo for As and Pb, and São Domingos for As). Elements concentrations in plant populations from Lousal, Chança and São Domingos did not present much variation. Brancanes soils and plants presented strong differences compared to other areas. Conclusions: Cistus ladanifer plants are able to survive in mining areas with polymetallic contamination at different elements concentrations in total and available fraction. This species presented variations inter- and intra-populations in accumulation and translocation of chemical elements; however, all studied populations, except Brancanes, can belong to the same population cluster. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Arenas-Lago D.,University of Vigo | Carvalho L.C.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,University of Lisbon | Santos E.S.,Dom Afonso III Higher Institute | Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

Cistus monspeliensis L. is a species that grows spontaneously in contaminated mining areas from the Iberian Pyrite Belt. This species can have high concentrations of Zn in the shoots without visible signs of phytotoxicity. In order to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, C. monspeliensis was grown at several concentrations of Zn2+ (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 μM) and the effects of this metal on plant development and on the defence mechanisms against oxidative stress were evaluated. Independently of the treatment, Zn was mainly retained in the roots. The plants with the highest concentrations of Zn showed toxicity symptoms such as chlorosis, low leaf size and decrease in biomass production. At 2000 μM of Zn, the dry biomass of the shoots decreased significantly. High concentrations of Zn in shoots did not induce deficiencies of other nutrients, except Cu. Plants with high concentrations of Zn had low amounts of chlorophyll, anthocyanins and glutathione and high contents of H2O2. The highest concentrations of Zn in shoots of C. monspeliensis triggered defence mechanisms against oxidative stress, namely by triggering antioxidative enzyme activity and by direct reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging through carotenoids, that are unaffected by stress due to stabilisation by ascorbic acid. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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