Yordy J.E.,Medical University of South Carolina |
Yordy J.E.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology |
Mollenhauer M.A.,Medical University of South Carolina |
Wilson R.M.,Florida State University |
And 8 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Cetaceans are federally protected species that are prone to accumulate complex mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which individually may exert estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects. In the present study it was assessed whether contaminant mixtures harbored by cetaceans are estrogenic or antiestrogenic using a comparative approach. Interactions of antiestrogenic and estrogenic compounds were first investigated with the E-Screen assay using a mixture of four POPs (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [4,4'-DDE], trans-nonachlor, and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] 138 180) prevalent in cetacean blubber. Estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity was determined for the individual compounds and their binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations. Significantly different responses were observed for the various POP mixtures, including enhanced estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects and antagonistic interactions. These results were then compared to the concentrations and estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity of contaminant mixtures isolated directly from the blubber of 15 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected from five U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico locations. The lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) determined for 4,4'-DDE (20 μmol/L), PCB 138 (20 μmol/L), PCB 180 (21 μmol/L), and trans-nonachlor (3 μmol/L) in the E-Screen were greater than estimated dolphin blood concentrations. Although estimated blood concentrations were below the LOECs, significant estrogenic activity was detected in diluted dolphin blubber from Cape May, NJ and Bermuda. Positive correlations between blubber estrogenicity and select POP concentrations (σDDTs, σPBDEs, σHCB, σestrogenic PCBs, σestrogenic POPs) were also observed. Collectively, these results suggest that select bottlenose dolphin populations may be exposed to contaminants that act in concert to exert estrogenic effects at biologically relevant concentrations. These observations do not necessarily provide direct evidence of endocrine disruption; however, they may indicate an environmental source of xenoestrogenic exposure warranting future research. © 2010 SETAC. Source
Dolphin Quest Inc. | Date: 1992-10-20
souvenir resort and leisure wear for men, women, and children; namely, polo-type shirts, hats and jackets, all sold only to visitors to the resort where applicants dolphin education/entertainment services are rendered, and to customers who have taken part in such services. entertainment and education services; namely, conducting classes where people interact with dolphins in a marine environment and teaching principles of conservation and preservation of dolphins and the marine ecosystem.
Dolphin Quest Inc. | Date: 2006-02-28
Printed teaching materials such as educational curricula, resource information and lesson plans to teachers and classrooms at the elementary and secondary school levels, all concerning conservation and preservation of dolphins and the marine ecosystem. Entertainment and education services, namely, conducting interactive programs for adults and children in which participants interact with dolphins in a marine environment and learn principles of conservation and preservation of dolphins and the marine ecosystem; Conducting interactive programs for children in the classrooms at the elementary and secondary school levels in the field of conservation and preservation of dolphins and the marine ecosystem; and Providing educational curricula, resource information and lesson plans via the internet to teachers and classrooms at the elementary and secondary school levels, all concerning conservation and preservation of dolphins and the marine ecosystem.. Providing scientific research information via the internet on the subject of conservation and preservation of dolphins and the marine ecosystem.
Dolphin Quest Inc. | Date: 2002-07-30
SOUVENIR RESORT AND LEISURE WEAR FOR MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN; NAMELY, POLO-TYPE SHIRTS, HATS, AND JACKETS, ALL SOLD ONLY TO VISITORS TO THE RESORT WHERE APPLICANTS DOLPHIN EDUCATION/ ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES ARE RENDERED, TO CUSTOMERS WHO VISIT APPLICANTS WEBSITE TO OBTAIN INFORMATION ON APPLICANTS DOLPHIN EDUCATION/ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES, AND TO CUSTOMERS WHO HAVE TAKEN PART IN SUCH SERVICES. ENTERTAINMENT AND EDUCATION SERVICES; NAMELY, CONDUCTING CLASSES WHERE PEOPLE INTERACT WITH DOLPHINS IN A MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND TEACHING PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION OF DOLPHINS AND THE MARINE ECOSYSTEM.
Fahlman A.,Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi |
Loring S.H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center |
Levine G.,Dolphin Quest Inc. |
Rocho-Levine J.,Dolphin Quest Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology
We measured esophageal pressures, respiratory flow rates, and expired O2 and CO2 in six adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during voluntary breaths and maximal (chuff) respiratory efforts. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate (VO2) and CO2 production rates (VCO2) during rest. Our results indicate that bottlenose dolphins have the capacity to generate respiratory flow rates that exceed 130 l s-1 and 30 l s-1 during expiration and inspiration, respectively. The esophageal pressures indicated that expiration is passive during voluntary breaths, but active during maximal efforts, whereas inspiration is active for all breaths. The average sCL of dolphins was 0.31±0.04 cmH2O-1, which is considerably higher than that of humans (0.08 cmH2O-1) and that previously measured in a pilot whale (0.13 cmH2O-1). The average estimated VO2 and VCO2 using our breath-by-breath respirometry system ranged from 0.857 to 1.185 l O2 min-1 and 0.589 to 0.851 l CO2 min-1, respectively, which is similar to previously published metabolic measurements from the same animals using conventional flow-through respirometry. In addition, our custom-made system allows us to approximate end tidal gas composition. Our measurements provide novel data for respiratory physiology in cetaceans, which may be important for clinical medicine and conservation efforts. © 2015, Company of Biologists Ltd. All rights reserved. Source