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Kumar R.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Kumar A.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science | Singh D.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2011

In an effort to optimize the medium components, the statistical methodology was applied to achieve the optimum lipase production under shake flask conditions. The study was conducted in three steps on newly isolated Bacillus pumilus RK 31. In the first step, 12 different variables viz., Glucose, Olive oil, Yeast extract, Peptone, Tween 80, KH2PO4, MgSO4, NaNO3, CaCl2, Temperature, pH and Inoculum size were used to identify the most significant variables affecting lipase production using Plackett-Burman statistical design. Variance analysis showed that Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH2PO4 played significant role in lipase production. In the second step, the values of the above-identified three variables were optimized by central composite design using three-level-three-factor approach. The optimum values of Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH2PO4 were found to be 10.0ml/l, 5.0ml/l and 8.0g/l, respectively. KH2PO4 was found to be responsible for maximum lipase production of 5.59IU/ml, experimental and 5.03IU/ml, predicted. In the third step, the optimum predicted values of the three factors and lipase production were verified by experimental approach. The amount of lipase produced in the designated medium was in agreement with that of predicted values by statistical method. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kumar L.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural Science | Kumar L.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh PG Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Singh B.,Sardar Bhagwan Singh PG Institute of Biomedical science and Research | Adhikari D.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | And 2 more authors.
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2012

A newly isolated Rhodococcus sp. LKE-028 (MTCC 5562) from soil samples of Gangotri region of Uttarakhand Himalayan produced a thermostable esterase. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity with purification fold 62.8 and specific activity 861.2 U mg -1 proteins along with 26.7% recovery. Molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 38 kDa and values of K m and V max were 525 nM and 1666.7 U mg -1 proteins, respectively. The esterase was active over a broad range of temperature (40-100 °C) and pH (7.0-12.0). The esterase was most active at pH 11.0. The optimum temperature of enzyme activity was 70°C and the enzyme was completely stable after 3 h pre-incubation at 60°C. Metal ions like Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and Co 2+ stimulated enzyme activities. Purified esterase remarkably retained its activity with 10 M NaCl. Enzyme activity was slightly increased in presence of non-polar detergents (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X 100), and compatible with oxidizing agents (H 2O 2) and reducing agents (β-mercaptoethanol). Activities of the enzyme was stimulated in presence of organic solvents like DMSO, benzene, toluene, methanol, ethyl alcohol, acetone, isoamyl alcohol after 10 days long incubation. The enzyme retained over 75% activity in presence of proteinase K. Besides hyperthermostability and halotolerancy the novelty of this enzyme is its resistance against protease. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Kumar A.S.,Dolphin Pg Institute Of Biomedical And Natural Science | Gauri,Dolphin Pg Institute Of Biomedical And Natural Science | Prasad R.B.,Central University of Costa Rica | Pant S.,Dolphin Pg Institute Of Biomedical And Natural Science
Research Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011

To produce good quality nitrogen inoculants, it is desired to obtain effective rhizobia with good nodulation and nitrogen fixing capacity to the host plant. It is therefore, required to find a nutrient medium for their growth and optimize the pH, temperature, incubation period and aeration. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of sugar waste (molasses) as an alternative growth medium for the cultivation of Rhizobium and to determine the optimum environmental parameters such as pH and temperature. Growth and population count of Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC 905) at different concentrations of sugar waste was monitored by recording Optical Density (OD) and Colony forming unit (cfu mL -1). Growth and population count were highest at 10% concentration i.e., 0.706±0.012 and 8.98±0.12, respectively. After optimizing the concentration of sugar waste growth pattern of R. trifolii was observed at 10% sugar waste concentration along with different synthetic media by recording Optical Density (OD) at 600 nm after 12 to 60 h. Cells of fast growing rhizobia grow rapidly on medium containing only 10% sugar waste and growth was superior to that of the control (standard media) used for Rhizobium. A pH of 7.0, temperature of 28°C and 48 h incubation period were most appropriate for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC 905). The present study concludes that 10% sugar waste is complete medium for the rhizobial inoculants. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Arora S.,University of Petroleum and Energy Studies | Yadav V.,University of Petroleum and Energy Studies | Kumar P.,University of Petroleum and Energy Studies | Gupta R.,University of Petroleum and Energy Studies | Kumar D.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial polymers are class of polymers with antimicrobial activity. The control of microbial infection is a very important issue in modern society. Increasing hygiene standards and the threat of infectious disease demand materials with surfaces that inhibit the survival and proliferation of microbes. The antimicrobial polymers are produced by attaching or inserting an active antimicrobial agent onto polymer backbone via an alkyl or acetyl linker. These are the upcoming new class of disinfectants which can be used even as an alternative to antibiotics in some cases. The treatment of microbial infections becomes more and more difficult because the number of resistant microbial strains as well as that of antibiotic-immune patients grows a lot faster than the number of useable antibiotics. The use of antimicrobial polymers offers promise for enhancing the efficacy of some existing antimicrobial agents and minimizing the environmental problems accompanying conventional antimicrobial agents by reducing the residual toxicity of the agents, increasing their selectivity and prolonging the lifetime of the antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobials gain interest from both academic research and industry due to their potential to provide quality and safety benefits to many materials. The present review considers the factors affecting the antimicrobial activity, synthetic methods of preparation and activities of antimicrobial polymers, application of antimicrobial polymers in different fields and future prospects.


Vijay S.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science | Sati O.P.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2011

Enteric copolymers of acrylic acid and methyl methacrylate (2.5:7.5 and 2:8) were prepared using tetrahydrofuran as solvent and AIBN as free radical initiator for colon targeting. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra of the copolymers showed absence of vinyl bond/protons present in the monomers suggesting successful polymerization. Flurbiprofen sodium microspheres (M1 and M2) made with the copolymers, by oil/oil solvent evaporation, were spherical, anionic (zeta potential -57.8 and -53.7 mV) and contained 5.47 and 5.89% drug. FTIR spectrum of microspheres showed peaks for aromatic C = C stretching and substituted benzene ring, indicating entrapment of flurbiprofen. PXRD revealed crystalline structure of flurbiprofen while copolymer and microspheres were amorphous. DSC thermograms showed a sharp melting endotherm of flurbiprofen sodium at 129.26°C against broad endotherms of copolymers and microspheres. The microspheres released 43 and 36% drug at pH 6.8 in 2 h and 99 and 96% at pH 7.4 in next 3-4 h.The microspheres did not adhere on gastric-mucosa at pH 1.2 but showed mucoadhesion time of 18 min and 9 min on intestinal mucosa at pH 6.8. Thus, the microspheres on oral administration, would release the drug in colon, suggesting the potential of the hemocompatible copolymers for pH dependent colon targeted drug delivery system. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Kumar V.,Uttaranchal University | Nanda M.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2016

The declining reserves of fossil fuels and fossil fuel-related environmental issues, especially greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane) emissions, have posed a great threat and challenge to the sustainability of the world economy, the global environment, and hence the quality of life of human beings. Biomass pyrolysis could help reduce both the world’s dependence on oil and CO2 production. These bio-oils have the potential to cut CO2 emission because they are made up of plants that use CO2 for growth. There is a need to integrate process operation and reactor design to improve the effectiveness of different processes used for biomass to produce multiple products using a combination of technologies. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Bhatt B.J.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science | Maqsood S.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

The heavy metal toxicants accumulate in the fish through the general body surface which affects severely their life support system. Once these toxic substance enter into the fish body, they damage and weaken the mechanism concerned leading to physiological, pathological and biochemical disorders. The present study proved that the heavy metal salts, i.e. copper sulphate impacts on behavioral responses in fresh water breathing fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Histological studies have revealed that the liver sections from control fishes showed normal histoarchitecture, The liver is characterized by polygonal shaped hepatocytes with granular cytoplasm and centrally placed round nuclei. Hepatocytes were arranged in well organized hepatic cords and separated by narrow blood sinusoids. Liver of fishes exposed to 1.5 ppm, 2.0 ppm and 3.0 ppm copper sulphate for 30 days resulted in the loosening of hepatic tissue, vacuolization, enucleated and distended hepatocytes and the centrally situated nuclei have shifted to the periphery of the cells.


Bhardwaj D.K.,Dolphin Pg Institute Of Biomedical And Natural Science | Thakur K.N.,Dolphin Pg Institute Of Biomedical And Natural Science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

The study area is the "Selaqui" region of district Dehradun of the state of Uttarakhand in India. Dehradun is the capital of Uttarakhand and situated at the height in the foothills of 2073mm. It is located about 19 kms West-Northwest of capital city of Dehradun. Selaqui village is located at latitude 30.35' and longitude 77.94'. The area has forest land which is rich in the Shorea robusta trees. The insects were collected, pinned, spreading, dried and preserved. Total 30 insects species belonging to different orders viz. Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Isoptera Odanata, was identified during the study period i.e April-May 2014. Among all orders Coeleoptera was dominated with 7 species with 36 no. of individuals. Lepidoptera was recorded with 6 species followed by Hemiptera with 5 species. Hymenoptera and Orthoptera with 4 species each. Diptera and Odonata with 2 and Dictyoptera and Isoptera with 1 species each. The diversity index was calculated by Shannon- Weiner Expression. In the present study, species diversity has been calculated, which is 1.380. This value shows high species diversity in the Sal forest.


Vijay S.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science | Sati O.P.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2010

Acrylic acid (AA)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) based copolymers, in different molar ratios (3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, and 7:3) were synthesized using tetrahydrofuran as solvent and AIBN as free radical initiator. Increase in acrylic acid concentration promoted pH-dependent swelling of copolymer and copolymer AA:MMA (3:7) was selected due to minimum swelling. ATR/FTIR and 1H NMR spectra of the copolymer showed absence of vinyl bond/protons present in the monomers suggesting successful polymerization. The copolymer was hemocompatible. Flurbiprofen sodium microspheres made with the copolymer, by oil/oil solvent evaporation, were spherical, anionic (zeta potential -59.0 mV) and contained 4.53% drug. ATR spectrum of microspheres showed peaks for aromatic C=C stretching and substituted benzene ring, indicating entrapment of flurbiprofen. XRD analysis revealed crystalline structure of flurbiprofen while copolymer and microspheres were amorphous. DSC thermograms showed a sharp melting endotherm of flurbiprofen sodium at 129.26°C against broad endotherms of copolymer and microspheres having peaks at 82.24 and 86.59°C, respectively. The thermogram of microspheres did not show the melting peak of flurbiprofen. The microspheres exhibited no drug release at pH <6.8 and released 83.4 and 99% drug at pH 6.8 and 7.4 in 3 h. The microspheres did not adhere on gastric mucosa at pH 1.2 but showed mucoadhesion time of 28 min on intestinal mucosa at pH 6.8. Thus, the microspheres on oral administration, would release the drug in distal ileum, suggesting the potential of the hemocompatible copolymer for enteric coating for prolonged drug release. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Kumar V.,Uttaranchal University | Nanda M.,Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural science | Singh A.,Uttaranchal University
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2016

Fuels derived from biomass are essential in order to overcome the excessive dependence on petroleum. They also minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases. Pretreatment in biofuel production is a very important step. Pretreatment is not only costly in its own right but also has a pervasive impact on the cost of virtually all other processing operations. The present study investigates the effect of bacterial amylase pretreatment on ethanol production from different kinds of starch-based solid waste (SBSW). For this purpose four amylase-producing bacterial isolates were obtained from samples collected from municipal waste dumping sites. The isolated bacteria were then used for the pretreatment of SBSW for ethanol production. After bacterial amylase pretreatment, 13% yield of ethanol was obtained. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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