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Kumar S.,Dolphin PG Institute of Bio Medical and Natural science | Tandon H.K.L.,Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering And Technology | Kapila S.,National Dairy Research Institute
Milchwissenschaft | Year: 2011

Bioactive peptides from milk and other sources have many regulatory functions in biological system. In addition to the well documented nutritive role, several nutraceutical/therapeutic functions have been suggested for the bioactive peptides released from milk proteins, especially caseins. These functional peptides are inactive or nascent in the amino acid sequence of native proteins and can be released by enzymatic hydrolysis either during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing. Though caseins are milk specific proteins, species-specific differences have been observed between cow and goat caseins, in terms of their amino acid sequence, degree of glycosylation, phosphorylation, and genetic polymorphism. Information on ACE inhibitory activity exhibited by cow casein derived peptides has been well documented. The data on goat milk casein derived bioactive peptides is quite scanty. In the present communication, antihypertensive and immunomodulatory peptides of goat casein has been studied. Peptic and tryptic hydrolysates of goat casein exhibited substantial ACE inhibitory activity and was found to be more in comparison to cow and buffalo casein derived ACE inhibitory peptides. Tryptic and chymotryptic hydrolysates of goat casein showed immunomodulatory activities. Source


Kumar S.,Dolphin PG Institute of Bio Medical and Natural science | Teotia U.V.S.,Sri Venkteshwara University | Sanghi A.,Dolphin PG Institute of Bio Medical and Natural science
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

Fundamental studies have opened a new field of research related to bioactive substances derived from food, and the pioneering work in this field has been done in the last decade on the basis of substance-orientated food and nutritional science. Milk proteins are considered important sources of bioactive peptides that could be released through enzymatic hydrolysis by digestive (gastrointestinal) enzymes, by fermentation, and by proteolysis employing enzymes derived from microorganisms or plants. These peptides are inactive within the protein sequence, requiring enzymatic proteolysis for release of the bioactive fragment from the proteins precursor. These molecules could be potentially employed in health and food products. In this investigation cow milk caseinate hydrolysates obtained with three different proteases studied with respect to the effect of incubation period on their activity. After treating the caseinate with different enzymes, each enzyme hydrolysates were estimated for their degree of hydrolysis and finally analyzed for their antioxidant activity by DPPH method. Peptic hydrolysates of cow casein showed highest antioxidant activity followed by tryptic hydrolysates. Peptic hydrolysates of 2hr incubation showed highest activity. Further, the peptide samples showing highest activity upto 2hrs of incubation were subjected to RP-HPLC for their partial characterization. Tryptic and peptic hydrolysates produced peaks mainly in the region of hydrophillic solvent indicating the presence of hydrophillic peptides/peptides. However, in general all the hydrolysates show fairly good antioxidant activity. Thus, it could be concluded that bioactive peptides from the cow casein possesses good antioxidant property which has useful implications in food science & nutrition in the future prospective. Source


Kumar S.,Dolphin PG Institute of Bio Medical and Natural science | Chouhan V.S.,National Yak Research Center | Sanghi A.,Dolphin PG Institute of Bio Medical and Natural science | Teotia U.V.S.,Sri Venkteshwara University
Veterinary World | Year: 2013

Aim: Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location which may have significant effects on composition, microbiota and hydrolytic outcome. Present work was designed with the aim to evaluate the antioxidative effect of peptides derived from yak milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases. Materials and Methods: In this investigation Yak milk casein was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases (Trypsin, Pepsin and chymotrypsin). These hydrolysates collected at different hydrolysis times (30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, 210 min, 240 min, 270 min, 300 min, 330 min and 360 min) were assayed for their antioxidant activity with respect to the effect of incubation period. Results: Among all the enzyme hydrolysates, the tryptic hydrolysates showed highest antioxidant activity followed by chymotryptic hydrolysates. Further, the peptide samples showing highest activity were subjected to RP-HPLC for their partial characterization. Tryptic and peptic hydrolysates produced peaks mainly in the region of hydrophillic solvent indicating the presence of hydrophillic peptides/peptides. Conclusion: The results indicated that yak milk casein could be a resource to generate antioxidative peptides and be used as multifunctional active ingredients for many value-added functional foods as well as a traditional food protein. © The authors. Source

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