Dolphin, United States
Dolphin, United States

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Dutta R.,Dolphin Energy Ltd. | Madi M.,Dolphin Energy Ltd.
International Petroleum Technology Conference [IPTC] (Doha, Qatar, 1/19-22/2014) Proceedings | Year: 2014

The main objective of an asset integrity management system (AIMS) is to ensure that the physical assets of facilities and pipeline system are operated in a reliable, efficient, and safe manner. Such motives can include the fitness to function safely and reliably; consistency with all industry requirements and international standards; compliance with company's AIMS philosophy, operating and maintenance philosophy and engineering standards/specifications as well as industry regulations. The AIMS goals shall demonstrate the persona of the company with an inward look into the company's values and shall be subjected to evolution rather than revision. At Dolphin Energy Limited (DEL), the QHSE philosophy of zero injuries, zero accidents, zero releases and no (minimal potential negative) impact to the public, the surrounding environment, and customers (zero leak thresholds) was supported by DEL's implementation of the most appropriate technology available. This review paper will demonstrate DEL's focus on proactively understanding the type, extent, and the effect of all potential defects and by implementing the best practices in the industry.


Al-Shaabi M.,Dolphin Energy Ltd. | Emadaddhi K.,Dolphin Energy Ltd. | Roquet D.,Dolphin Energy Ltd.
International Petroleum Technology Conference [IPTC] (Doha, Qatar, 1/19-22/2014) Proceedings | Year: 2014

Dolphin Energy Limited's (DEL) production scheme is based on a wet transport of well effluents from offshore platforms to the onshore treatment plant. At the onshore receiving facilities, produced sour water is routed to water treatment units. Since the plant startup in 2006, non-chemically contaminated waste water is used for irrigation after treatment. Produced waste water and chemically contaminated waste water are re-injected into a deep reservoir without any major treatment further to H2S stripping, oil skimming, pH control and multi-media filtration. However, local authorities have expressed their concerns about the quality of water injected and the potential risk of long-term injectivity loss. As sealines need to be protected against corrosion using a corrosion inhibitor (CI) and hydrate formation by using kinetic hydrate inhibitor (KHI), produced water recovered onshore is chemically contaminated with polymer based chemicals. As KHI could damage the reservoir, it has to be removed from produced water prior to reinjection. Dolphin Energy launched bench scale tests with a third-party laboratory to identify the best treatment scheme to remove KHI.


Choudhary S.,Dolphin Energy Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIPEC 2015 | Year: 2015

The purpose of this paper is to present a condensed summary of the work done by Dolphin Energy on chloride stress corrosion cracking (Cl-SCC). Stress corrosion cracking poses a serious threat to the integrity of a natural gas plant and the company responded to this threat by launching a comprehensive initiative to determine the cause(s) and to adopt best practices for preventing future failures. This paper provides a valuable engineering insight into the ways and means adopted by the company for tackling Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking issues in an operational plant without jeopardizing safety while maintaining the production targets at the same time. Included in this paper are various monitoring tools as well as interim and permanent preventive measures that were employed by Dolphin Energy following the first reported instance of chloride cracking in one of the stainless steel pipe works carrying hydrocarbon mixed with H2S. One of the sources of the chlorides responsible for the corrosion/cracking failures was believed to be from hydrolysis of Ca/Mg/Na chloride salts generated in the hot stabilizer bottom and/or from left over hydrochloric acid (from well stimulations) in the well head production fluid. This condition was not considered during the design phase. Interim and permanent preventive measures were identified for tackling the Cl-SCC issues. Key recommendations to address Cl-SCC included a reduction in operating pressure/temperature at vulnerable sections of the unit, use of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to identify and monitor the cracks and generation of an Integrity Operating Window (IOW) to keep the key operating parameters within thresholds. It was determined that a material upgrade was the permanent solution for avoiding Cl-SCC in the Condensate Stabilization Unit. A metallurgical investigation confirmed the mode of cracking to be intergranular as well as trans-granular unlike conventional chloride cracking, which is primarily transgranular in nature. The reasons for observed mixed-mode cracking could be ascribed to certain combination of Chlorides, H2S, CO2 and partially oxidized sulfur species that are present in the service apart from the degree of cold work that material has undergone during fabrication. It is important that within one year of commissioning the unit, a detailed review is made to verify process and operating parameters (design assumption versus actual operating conditions). Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Dutta R.,Dolphin Energy Ltd | Al Suwaidi I.M.,Dolphin Energy Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIPEC 2015 | Year: 2015

Most operating oil and gas companies possess pipeline assets and In-line Inspections (ILI) are the most effective ways to assess the integrity of a pipeline. However to carry out ILI the pipeline should be piggable. Asset integrity audits have identified that while main pipelines are piggable most inter connectors, branches and by-passes are not in the pig's path. Some sections while no longer in use, are still connected with the live system. These sections may be used rarely and therefore not an operational priority. However these 'weak links' pose a major threat to overall system integrity. Many of these non-piggable pipelines do not have a corrosion control strategy and the technical integrity of most is unknown. This has been identified as a high integrity risk to operating companies with respect to loss of production, high cost of failure/degradation and high failure safety risk. As part of the technical integrity drive and risk management strategy, a need was identified to develop the strategy to assure the integrity of non-piggable pipelines / sections. A thorough technical analysis made with advantages and limitations of available integrity assessment methods for non-piggable pipelines, such as: Hydrostatic Pressure Testing, External MFL Survey, Long Range Ultrasonic Thickness (LRUT) and Corrosion Direct Assessment (CDA). Based on the analysis, the most effective and techno-economic solutions were recommended and adopted by Dolphin Energy for its on-shore pipeline network in the UAE namely LRUT. Dolphin Energy operates approximately 750 Km of gas transmission and successfully completed an LRUT inspection project - Phase-1 in 2012 comprising 9 locations and Phase-2 in 2014 - comprising 52 locations throughout the UAE. Post project assessment was made where LRUT inspection and corrosion direct assessment results were analyzed together. Post assessment specifically addressed the effectiveness of methods used, corrosion root cause analysis, a corrective action plan, remaining life calculations and determination of re-assessment interval of each non-piggable pipeline. This paper addresses the new strategy developed and successfully implemented by Dolphin Energy to address the challenges associated with these non-piggable pipelines, sections and dead legs. Through this paper other operating companies who face similar challenges will benefit from the experiences of Dolphin Energy. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Whateley T.R.G.,Dolphin Energy Ltd. | Roquet D.,Dolphin Energy Ltd.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIPEC 2015 | Year: 2015

Significant sulphur and iron sulphide deposits were observed throughout the MP Sour flare header within the gas processing plant onshore facility. This deposit was generated through both a slow Claus reaction in the header when SO2 and H2S rich gasses combined and from sulfenic acid reaction with the pipe material. This solid material led to restrictions of up to 80% cross section for some flare sub headers and resulted in potential incapacitation of safety protection systems. Through gamma-scanning, the extent of build up was assessed and through hydro-jetting, several tons of the deposits were removed. To mitigate future deposit formation, all SO2 rich sources to the MP Sour flare were positively isolated; bursting discs installed upstream of PSVs and spectacle blinds installed in closed position in maintenance vent lines to the MP Sour flare. In addition, purging of the relieving and venting lines with nitrogen following operation in SO2 rich service was mandated through revision of operating manuals. Potential sulfenic acid sources were identified and similarly isolated. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Al Hajri A.,Dolphin Energy Ltd | Basheer M.,Dolphin Energy Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIPEC 2015 | Year: 2015

As part of the continuous effort to reduce/minimize flaring, an optimization project was undertaken to reduce flaring during the normal operation phase by minimizing the purge gas flow rates to the minimum acceptable limit. The previous purge gas flow overseen by the EPC Contractor was revised using the latest API standards (API 521). As a result, the study identified a major opportunity to optimize the off-shore flaring as summarized in table-1 below: Revised criteria from latest API standards applied to the offshore HP flare showed that the minimum purge gas requirement should be lower than flare vendor recommendation (from the vendor datasheet). A process margin is added to the recommended purge gas flowrate to cover for fuel gas composition and flow meter accuracy. The new minimum purge gas requirement defined as a revised design was confirmed by company's technical team. The flare vendor also confirmed that the revised design was above the recommended minimum purge rates for the HP flare tip and committed to reduce air ingress and oxygen levels inside the flare tip and stack to acceptable points during normal purge scenarios. This would also ensure safety, reliability, and integrity. Implementation of the purge gas reduction in the offshore HP flares was achieved by carrying out a step-by step reduction of the purge gas flow down to the flame visibility. A detailed Method of Statement was prepared to ensure a smooth purge gas reduction activity. As the purge gas flow was reduced, the HP flare tip inspection frequency increased. At the initial stage, flare tip inspection frequency of 2 years was suggested in line with the platform shutdown schedule. Copyright 2015, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Shahin A.,Dolphin Energy Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2014, IPTC 2014: Unlocking Energy Through Innovation, Technology and Capability | Year: 2014

"Maintenance is a combination of all the technical, administrative and managerial actions during the life cycle of an item intended to keep it in or restore it to a state which it can perform the required function". Nowadays, maintenance is acknowledged as a major contributor to the operational and fiscal performance of asset-intensive organizations; especially Oil and Gas organizations. Therefore, the management of maintenance departments strives to explore every opportunity to improve the performance and profitability of their departments and achieve cost savings for their organizations. Computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) has rapidly evolved to become the central component in maintenance departments of many organizations. The rationale is simple, CMMS provides organizations with ample opportunities to optimize their maintenance and boost the reliability of their physical assets. However, realizing these opportunities is a daunting task. This paper describes a maintenance management framework for optimizing the maintenance of gas facilities using CMMS (SAP R/3 in the author's organization). This framework is a result of the positive evolution of the collaborative thinking of the maintenance department at the author organization's down-stream operations. This framework addresses and integrates the areas where CMMS can contribute the most to the organization's performance in terms of maintenance improvement and retum-on-investment (ROI). These areas are: Asset information management, work order management, resources utilization, performance management, fault analysis, capital equipment life plans and replacement decisions. The findings of this paper show that a holistic maintenance management framework is required for organizations aspiring to optimize their maintenance and maximize the returns on their CMMS. Without a working framework, they risk missing many of the benefits of CMMS and rendering the later a merely administrative tool. Copyright 2014, International Petroleum Technology Conference.


Dutta R.,Dolphin Energy Ltd | Madi M.,Dolphin Energy Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2014, IPTC 2014: Unlocking Energy Through Innovation, Technology and Capability | Year: 2014

The main objective of an Asset Integrity Management System (AIMS) is to ensure that the physical assets of facilities and pipeline system are operated in a reliable, efficient, and safe manner. Such motives can include the fitness to function safely and reliably; Consistency with all industry requirements and international standards; Compliance with company's AIMS Philosophy, Operating & Maintenance Philosophy & Engineering Standards/Specifications as well as industry regulations. The AIMS goals shall demonstrate the persona of the company where an inward look into the company's values and shall be subjected to evolution rather than revision. At Dolphin Energy Limited (DEL), the QHSE philosophy of - zero injuries, zero accidents, zero releases and no (minimal potential negative) impact to the public, the surrounding environment, and customers (Zero Leak Thresholds) was support by DEL's implementation of the most appropriate technology available in the world along with KPI development in areas of defect management; specified tolerances; assessing infrastructure fitness-for-purpose & measuring the effectiveness of AIMS activities. This review paper will demonstrate DEL's great focus on proactively understanding the type, extent, and the effect of all potential defects and by implementing a process where such learning is re-injecting and the results are structured and documented. The importance of regular internal reviews of the AIMS to ensure internal conformance, and the appropriate evolution of such approach as well as measuring its effectiveness are all important in making the right decisions in cases where emerging issues are supported and maintained. The AIMS approach shall be proactive where asset safety and reliability start with prevention by utilizing rigorous QA/QC related to design; materials, coatings, cathodic protection system infrastructure, and non-destructive examination. Participation in the initial project development teams & project approval processes and providing Integrity related input/approvals of projects design bases and construction activities are of an extreme value to Asset Management. Generally, aging infrastructure does become susceptible to the manifestation of time-dependent failure mechanisms where monitoring programs shall be structured usually into Operational Monitoring programs as well as large-scale monitoring programs such as (ILI) for pipelines. Any potential issue identified through risk assessment and/or monitoring activities shall be effectively mitigated to ensure Asset Integrity. Mitigation programs of AIMS shall also be addressed and may include regular preventative maintenance programs & repair activities. On the engineering Asset Integrity side, defect data validation studies and Failure Investigation & Root Cause Analysis, defect Assessments and feature growth analysis, risk based inspections (RBI) shall be considered within the AIMS overall structure. Another important component of AIMS is the utilization of application software that will assist in decision making which also can be based on a GIS based platform tool for integrity-related decision making. Such application can perform comprehensive Risk & Data Management capabilities. This review paper shall demonstrate how AIMS at Dolphin Energy Limited has been evolving in the UAE by highlighting the best practices in the industry. Copyright 2014, International Petroleum Technology Conference.


Al-Shaabi M.,Dolphin Energy Ltd | Emadaddhi K.,Dolphin Energy Ltd | Roquet D.,Dolphin Energy Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2014, IPTC 2014: Unlocking Energy Through Innovation, Technology and Capability | Year: 2014

Dolphin Energy Limited's (DEL) production scheme is based on a wet transport of well effluents from offshore platforms (DOL-1 and DOL-2) to the onshore treatment plant. At the onshore receiving facilities, sour gas is routed to gas sweetening, condensate is stabilized and treated and produced sour water is routed to water treatment units. Since the plant startup in 2006, non-chemically contaminated waste water is used for irrigation after treatment. Produced waste water and chemically contaminated waste water are re-injected into a deep reservoir without any major treatment further to H2S stripping, oil skimming, pH control and multi-media filtration. However, local authorities have expressed their concerns about the quality of water injected and the potential risk of long term injectivity loss. Indeed, as sealines need to be protected all year round against corrosion using a Corrosion Inhibitor (Cl) and hydrate formation during winter by using Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor (KHI), produced water recovered onshore is chemically contaminated with polymer based chemicals. As KHI could damage the reservoir, it has to be removed from produced water prior to reinjection. However, no technology was clearly available and referenced for this application. Dolphin Energy launched numerous bench scale tests with a third party laboratory to identify the best treatment scheme to remove KHI. The paper will first explain the overall strategy put in place to identify applicable processes. Then, it will describe the laboratory tests on produced water for KHI removal and destruction. Eventually, results will be presented and compared in order to conclude with applicable treatment schemes that would remove and destroy KHI from produced water for sustainable reinjection. Copyright 2014, International Petroleum Technology Conference.


Roquet D.,Dolphin Energy Ltd | Aslam I.,Dolphin Energy Ltd | Emadaddhi K.,Dolphin Energy Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2014, IPTC 2014: Unlocking Energy Through Innovation, Technology and Capability | Year: 2014

Dolphin Energy Limited (DEL) is considering reducing the native Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from its Ras Laffan plant in the state of Qatar. One important source of native Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the gaseous effluents from the two Sulfur Recovery Units (SRU's). Dolphin studied the possible options for recovering up to 50 MMSCFD CO2 from the subject SRU's effluents upstream the thermal incinerator section in the SRU using the existing infrastructures in its Ras Laffan plant. The recovered CO2 would be exported at medium pressure (MP, 7 bara) and/or high pressure (HP, 190 bara) to other users. The study investigated the possible options to recover and compress the CO2 product. Capital costs, utilities requirements, operating costs, carbon intensity savings, layout and electrical power supply were all studied. The study investigated the following technologies, which are based on amine solvents: • HP scheme with some feed gas compression to improve the performance of the solvent and reduce equipment size. • LP scheme with low pressure efficient technology that does not need much feed compression. • Revision of existing treatment scheme in the Sulfur Recovery Unit to perform Acid Gas Enrichment, Tail Gas Treatment and CO2 capture with minimum modifications. The study considered that either (i) each SRU train will get its own CO2 recovery unit and compressors, or (ii) the SRUs' effluents from both SRU trains will be combined before treatment. The paper will present main outcomes of this study and highlight specific requirements with regard to CO2 properties in terms of phase behavior, design criteria and Health, Safety and Environment. Copyright 2014, International Petroleum Technology Conference.

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