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Chen H.,North Carolina A&T State University | Parks T.A.,North Carolina A&T State University | Chen X.,North Carolina Central University | Gillitt N.D.,Dole Nutrition Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Black tea consumption has been associated with many health benefits including the prevention of cancer and heart disease. Theaflavins are the major bioactive polyphenols present in black tea. Unfortunately, limited information is available on their biotransformation. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic fate of theaflavin 3,3'-digallate (TFDG), one of the most abundant and bioactive theaflavins, in mouse fecal samples using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry by analyzing the MS n (n=1-3) spectra. Four metabolites theaflavin, theaflavin 3-gallate, theaflavin 3'-gallate, and gallic acid were identified as the major mouse fecal metabolites of TFDG. Glucuronidated and sulfated, instead of methylated metabolites of theaflavin 3-gallate, theaflavin 3'-gallate, and TFDG were detected and identified as the minor mouse fecal metabolites of TFDG. Our results indicate that TFDG can be degraded in mice. Further studies on the formation of those metabolites in TFDG-treated mice in germ-free conditions are warranted. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biotransformation of TFDG in mice. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Nieman D.C.,Appalachian State University | Gillitt N.D.,Dole Nutrition Research Laboratory | Andrew Shanely R.,Appalachian State University | Dew D.,Appalachian State University | And 2 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2014

This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13) and placebo (n = 15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively), with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001), with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day) significantly increased 25(OH)D2 and decreased 25(OH)D3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Knab A.M.,Appalachian State University | Nieman D.C.,Appalachian State University | Gillitt N.D.,Dole Nutrition Research Laboratory | Shanely R.A.,Appalachian State University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2013

The effects of a flavonoid-rich fresh fruit and vegetable juice (JUICE) on chronic resting and postexercise inflammation, oxidative stress, immune function, and metabolic profiles (metabolomics analysis, gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry platform) in elite sprint and middle-distance swimmers were studied. In a randomized, crossover design with a 3-wk washout period, swimmers (n = 9) completed 10-d training with or without 16 fl oz of JUICE (230 mg flavonoids) ingested pre- and postworkout. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, post-10-d supplementation, and immediately postexercise, with data analyzed using a 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA. Prestudy blood samples were also acquired from nonathletic controls (n = 7, age- and weight-matched) and revealed higher levels of oxidative stress in the swimmers, no differences in inflammation or immune function, and a distinct separation in global metabolic scores (R2Y [cum] = .971). Swim workouts consisted of high-intensity intervals (1:1, 1:2 swim-to-rest ratio) and induced little inflammation, oxidative stress, or immune changes. A distinct separation in global metabolic scores was found pre- to postexercise (R2Y [cum] = .976), with shifts detected in a small number of metabolites related to substrate utilization. No effect of 10-d JUICE was found on chronic resting levels or postexercise inflammation, oxidative stress, immune function, and shifts in metabolites. In conclusion, sprint and middle-distance swimmers had a slight chronic elevation in oxidative stress compared with nonathletic controls, experienced a low magnitude of postworkout perturbations in the biomarkers included in this study, and received no apparent benefit other than added nutrient intake from ingesting JUICE pre- and postworkout for 10 days. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Root M.M.,Appalachian State University | Mcginn M.C.,Silver Bluff Village | Nieman D.C.,Appalachian State University | Henson D.A.,Appalachian State University | And 4 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2012

Previous studies have examined the relationship between specific nutrient and food intakes with limited markers of either inflammation or oxidant status. The objective of this study was to determine if an increase in combined self-reported fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a community setting was associated with improved multiple markers of inflammatory and oxidant status. A community group (N = 1000, age 18-85 years, 61% female) gave two fasted blood samples separated by 12 weeks. Blood inflammatory biomarkers included total leukocytes (WBC), plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Measured oxidant status markers were ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and plasma F2-isoprostanes. The relation of markers across categories of F&V intake was examined. In analyses controlling for other important dietary and lifestyle factors, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower across categories of increasing F&V intakes (p < 0.008). FRAP and ORAC were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.047 respectively) while F2-isoprostanes was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) across F&V categories. In a community study, several markers of both inflammation and oxidant status were associated in a putatively salutary direction by higher intake of combined F&V, supporting current guidelines suggesting increased F&V consumption for the prevention of chronic diseases. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Nieman D.C.,Appalachian State University | Shanely R.A.,Appalachian State University | Gillitt N.D.,Dole Nutrition Research Laboratory | Pappan K.L.,Metabolon | Lila M.A.,North Carolina State University
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2013

This study investigated changes in the human serum metabolome elicited by a 3-day period of intensified training. Runners (N = 15, mean ± SD age, 35.2 ± 8.7 years) ran for 2.5 h/day on treadmills at ∼70% VO 2max for 3 days in a row, with blood samples collected pre-exercise, and immediately and 14 h post-exercise. Samples were analyzed using gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS), with compounds identified based on comparison to more than 2800 purified standards. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify metabolites that differed significantly across time, with multiple testing corrected by the false discovery rate (FDR) (q-value). Immediately following the 3-day exercise period, significant 2-fold or higher increases in 75 metabolites were measured, with all but 22 of these metabolites related to lipid/carnitine metabolism, 13 to amino acid/peptide metabolism, 4 to hemoglobin/porphyrin metabolism, and 3 to Krebs cycle intermediates (q-values < 0.001). After a 14 h overnight recovery period, 50 of the 75 metabolites remained elevated, with 8 decreased (primarily amino acid-related metabolites) (q-values < 0.05). Among the top 20 metabolites, the mean fold changes were 12.4 ± 5.3 and 2.9 ± 1.3 immediately and 14-h post-exercise, respectively. Significant decreases (40-70%, q < 0.01) in 22 metabolites (primarily related to lysolipid and bile acid metabolism) were measured post-exercise, with all but 4 of these still decreased after 14 h rest recovery (q < 0.025). Runners experienced a profound systemic shift in blood metabolites related to energy production especially from the lipid super pathway following 3 days of heavy exertion that was not fully restored to pre-exercise levels after 14 h recovery. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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