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Gibson C.M.,The National Ecological Observatory Network | Kao R.H.,The National Ecological Observatory Network | Blevins K.K.,The National Ecological Observatory Network | Travers P.D.,The National Ecological Observatory Network | Travers P.D.,Dolan Integration Group
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Although 21st century ecology uses unprecedented technology at the largest spatio-temporal scales in history, the data remain reliant on sound taxonomic practices that derive from 18th century science. The importance of accurate species identifications has been assessed repeatedly and in instances where inappropriate assignments have been made there have been costly consequences. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will use a standardized system based upon an integrative taxonomic foundation to conduct observations of the focal terrestrial insect taxa, ground beetles and mosquitoes, at the continental scale for a 30 year monitoring program. The use of molecular data for continental-scale, multi-decadal research conducted by a geographically widely distributed set of researchers has not been evaluated until this point. The current paper addresses the development of a reference library for verifying species identifications at NEON and the key ways in which this resource will enhance a variety of user communities. © 2012 Gibson et al. Source

Lewan M.D.,U.S. Geological Survey | Dolan M.P.,Dolan Integration Group | Curtis J.B.,Colorado School of Mines
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2014

The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOC0). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is composition-ally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to illite. As a result, illitization only reaches 35% to 40% at 310°C for 72 hr and remains unchanged to 365°C for 72 hr. Bitumen generation before or during early illitization in these experiments emphasizes the importance of knowing when and to what degree illitization occurs in natural maturation of a smectite-rich source rock to determine its expulsion efficiency. Complete illitization prior to bitumen generation is common for Paleozoic source rocks (e.g., Woodford Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Member of the Phosphoria Formation), and expulsion efficiencies can be determined on immature samples by hydrous pyrolysis. Conversely, smectite is more common in Cenozoic source rocks like the Kreyenhagen Shale, and expulsion efficiencies determined by hydrous pyrolysis need to be made on samples that reflect the level of illitization at or near bitumen generation in the subsurface. Copyright © 2014. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved. Source

Clauer N.,CNRS Hydrology and Geochemistry Laboratory of Strasbourg | Lewan M.D.,U.S. Geological Survey | Dolan M.P.,Dolan Integration Group | Chaudhuri S.,Kansas State University | Curtis J.B.,Colorado School of Mines
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2014

Progressive maturation of the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale from the San Joaquin Basin of California was studied by combining mineralogical and chemical analyses with K-Ar dating of whole rocks and <2μm clay fractions from naturally buried samples and laboratory induced maturation by hydrous pyrolysis of an immature outcrop sample. The K-Ar age decreases from 89.9±3.9 and 72.4±4.2Ma for the outcrop whole rock and its <2μm fraction, respectively, to 29.7±1.5 and 21.0±0.7Ma for the equivalent materials buried to 5167m. The natural maturation does not produce K-Ar ages in the historical sense, but rather K/Ar ratios of relative K and radiogenic 40Ar amounts resulting from a combined crystallization of authigenic and alteration of initial detrital K-bearing minerals of the rocks. The Al/K ratio of the naturally matured rocks is essentially constant for the entire depth sequence, indicating that there is no detectable variation in the crystallo-chemical organization of the K-bearing alumino-silicates with depth. No supply of K from outside of the rock volumes occurred, which indicates a closed-system behavior for it. Conversely, the content of the total organic carbon (TOC) content decreases significantly with burial, based on the progressive increasing Al/TOC ratio of the whole rocks. The initial varied mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks and their <2μm fractions resulting from differences in detrital sources and depositional settings give scattered results that homogenize progressively during burial due to increased authigenesis, and concomitant increased alteration of the detrital material. Hydrous pyrolysis was intended to alleviate the problem of mineral and chemical variations in initially deposited rocks of naturally matured sequences. However, experiments on aliquots from thermally immature Kreyenhagen Shale outcrop sample did not mimic the results from naturally buried samples. Experiments conducted for 72h at temperatures from 270 to 365°C did not induce significant changes at temperatures above 310°C in the mineralogical composition and K-Ar ages of the rock and <2μm fraction. The K-Ar ages of the <2μm fraction range from 72.4±4.2Ma in the outcrop sample to 62.4±3.4Ma in the sample heated the most at 365°C for 216h. This slight decrease in age outlines some loss of radiogenic 40Ar, together with losses of organic matter as oil, gas, and aqueous organic species.Large amounts of smectite layers in the illite-smectite mixed layers of the pyrolyzed outcrop <2μm fraction remain during thermal experiments, especially above 310°C. With no illitization detected above 310°C, smectite appears to have inhibited rather than promoted generation of expelled oil from decomposition of bitumen. This hindrance is interpreted to result from bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayer sites and rock matrix. Bitumen remains in the <2μm fraction despite leaching with H2O2. Its presence in the smectite interlayers is apparent by the inability of the clay fraction to fully expand or collapse once bitumen generation from the thermal decomposition of the kerogen is completed, and by almost invariable K-Ar ages confirming for the lack of any K supply and/or radiogenic 40Ar removal. This suggests that once bitumen impregnates the porosity of a progressively maturing source rock, the pore system is no longer wetted by water and smectite to illite conversion ceases. Experimental attempts to evaluate the smectite conversion to illite should preferentially use low-TOC rocks to avoid inhibition of the reaction by bitumen impregnation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Cai M.Y.,University of New South Wales | Wang L.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis | Parkes S.D.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Strauss J.,Dolan Integration Group | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2015

The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate between different hydrological components and add insight into expected hydrological behavior. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Strauss J.,Duke University | Strauss J.,Florida Atlantic University | Strauss J.,Dolan Integration Group | Oleinik A.,Florida Atlantic University | Swart P.,University of Miami
Marine Biology | Year: 2014

Oxygen and carbon stable isotope profiles were constructed for two species of large subtropical gastropods of the family Fasciolariidae-Triplofusus giganteus and Fasciolaria tulipa-from the Florida Keys and the Bahamas, to evaluate their life history and to assess their potential as paleoenvironmental proxies. Oxygen isotope profiles revealed T. giganteus and F. tulipa grew their shells for 6 and 3 years, respectively. Both mollusks show faster growth rates during the first half of their lifespan. Mean annual temperatures (MAT) derived from oxygen isotopes for T. giganteus were 26.5 °C and for F. tulipa were 26.7 °C, both matching instrumental MATs of 26.7 and 26.5 °C for the Florida Keys. Both shells, however, failed to record entire mean annual temperature ranges (MART). Fasciolaria tulipa yielded a calculated MART of 5.6 °C compared with a measured MART of 9.3 °C, and T. giganteus showed a calculated MART of 6.9 °C compared with a measured MART of 9.4 °C. Carbon isotopes of T. giganteus were ambiguous and reveal no significant relationships with trends in nutrient concentrations (N and P), dissolved oxygen, and dissolved organic carbon, although they did exhibit more negative values concomitant with landfall of Hurricane Irene and trended to increasing values with ontogeny that could reflect migration. Carbon isotopes in F. tulipa were lower during winters, possibly reflecting seasonal upwelling or seagrass-mediated carbon cycling. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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