Arima M.,Chiba University |
Fukuda T.,Dokkyo University
Korean Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2011
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a major prostanoid, produced mainly by mast cells, in allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma. PGD2-induced vasodilatation and increased permeability are well-known classical effects that may be involved in allergic inflammation. Recently, novel functions of PGD2 have been identified. To date, D prostanoid receptor (DP) and chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2) have been shown to be major PGD2-related receptors. These two receptors have pivotal roles mediating allergic diseases by regulating the functions of various cell types, such as TH2 cells, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells. This review will focus on the current understanding of the roles of PGD2 and its metabolites in TH2 inflammation and the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.
Hou A.Y.,NASA |
Kakar R.K.,NASA |
Neeck S.,NASA |
Azarbarzin A.A.,NASA |
And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2014
The GPM mission is specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA have successfully deployed the GPM Core Observatory on February 28, 2014, building upon the success of TRMM launched by NASA of the US and JAXA of Japan in 1997. The observatory carries the first spaceborne dual-frequency phased array precipitation radar, the DPR, operating at Ku and Ka bands and a conical-scanning multi-channel microwave imager known as the GMI. This sensor package is an extension of the TRMM instruments, which focused primarily on heavy to moderate rain over tropical and subtropical oceans. The GPM sensors will extend the measurement range attained by TRMM to include light-intensity precipitation and falling snow, which accounts for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in the middle and high latitudes.
Yamaguchi K.,Dokkyo University
Annals of Anatomy | Year: 2014
Background: Precise anatomical data on the development of human oculomotor somatic nuclei (OSN) remain rare. Design/subjects: This study describes the histology of human OSN in 11 preterm and full-term infants aged 20-43 postmenstrual weeks who died of various causes. Celloidin-embedded serial sections were stained with the Klüver-Barrera and other conventional methods including silver impregnation. To evaluate the growth of OSN quantitatively, the author estimated the nuclear volume and the average neuronal area on morphometry. Results: Four subnuclei were identified at 20-21 weeks: the fascicular, principal, dorsal median, and ventral median nucleus. Early tigroid Nissl bodies appeared in presumed motoneurons by 27-28 weeks, then resembled adult Nissl bodies at birth. On silver impregnation, the oculomotor nerve roots, crossed or uncrossed fibers at the midline, and a plexus of efferent or afferent axons in the neuropil were observed at 20-21 weeks. Then, the plexus was elaborated to form a perineuronal net of thin axon terminals by 28-29 weeks. The nuclear volume of OSN exponentially increased with age over 20-43 weeks, while the average of neuronal profile areas linearly increased in each subnucleus; the coefficient of regression was largest in the principal nucleus, and the regression lines nearly overlapped among the other subnuclei. Statistical analysis confirmed that the average neuronal area was largest in the principal nucleus in older cases. Conclusion: This study suggests that four subnuclei can be distinguished in human OSN by mid gestation, and that the principal nucleus may be different in neuronal cytoarchitecture from the others. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.
Shiota N.,Dokkyo University
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies | Year: 2014
It is demonstrated that the effectiveness of the pricing and standards approach (PSA) to emission control is seriously impaired by imperfect tax compliance of regulated firms, contrary to literature reports. If there exists a firm that attempts to commit 100% tax evasion, PSA fails to minimize the social abatement cost, and when all firms take the risk of total tax evasion, PSA no longer reduces emissions. Heavy taxes give firms incentive to cheat, so the government is only able to adopt PSA when target levels of total emission reductions are relatively small. © 2008, Springer Japan.
Kitajima K.,Dokkyo University
Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging | Year: 2010
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D: -glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast for depiction of recurrent pancreatic cancer, compared with PET/non-enhanced CT and CT. PROCEDURE: Forty-five patients previously treated for pancreatic cancer underwent PET/CT for suspected recurrence. Lesion status was determined on the basis of histopathology and radiological imaging follow-up. RESULTS: Patient-based analysis showed that sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/contrast-enhanced CT were 91.7%, 95.2%, and 93.3%, respectively, whereas those of PET/non-enhanced CT were 83.3%, 90.5%, and 86.7%, respectively, and those of enhanced CT were 66.7%, 85.7%, and 75.6%, respectively. In 21 patients whom the final diagnosis was obtained from the histopathologic examination, those figures of PET/contrast-enhanced CT were 94.7%, 50.0%, and 90.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of PET/contrast-enhanced CT in detecting local recurrence, abdominal lymph node metastasis, and peritoneal dissemination were 83.3%, 87.5%, and 83.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: PET/contrast-enhanced CT is an accurate modality for assessing recurrence of pancreatic cancer.
Hamamoto M.,Dokkyo University
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Yamada Y.,Dokkyo University |
Yoshihara S.,Tsuchiya Childrens Hospital
Allergology International | Year: 2010
Background: Creola bodies (CrBs) in the sputum are an indicator of respiratory epithelial damage and appear specifically in bronchial asthma. We studied the presence and clinical significance of CrBs in infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis contributing to the development of asthma. Methods: Aspirated sputum samples were collected from 33 infants admitted with acute RSV bronchiolitis. The samples were then examined for the presence (or absence) of CrBs and classified into the RSV-CrB group and RSV-non-CrB group. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and neutrophil elastase (NE) concentrations in the sputum were compared between the two groups. History of wheeze and asthma was collected at 2 years and 5 years after their discharge from hospital. Results: CrBs were detected in 23 of the 33 subjects (69.7%). No significant difference in the ECP and the NE concentration were observed between the RSV-CrB group and RSV-non-CrB group. A significant relationship was observed between CrBs detected with RSV bronchiolitis and the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma (after 2 years: relative risk [RR], 3.09; p = 0.002; after 5 years: RR 7.00; p = 0.019). Conclusions: These findings suggest that a high rate of CrBs in the sputum is present in infants with RSV bronchiolitis, and notably the CrBs are associated with the progression to recurrent wheezing and asthma. © 2010 Japanese Society of Allergology.
[Follow-up after curative surgery for colorectal cancer: impact of positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT)]. [Seguimiento posterior a la cirugía curativa para el cáncer colorrectal: impacto de la tomografía por emisión de positrones - tomografía computarizada (PET/TC).]
Kishimoto G.,Dokkyo University
Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú | Year: 2010
Postoperative surveillance has an important role in patient survival after curative resection of colorectal cancer. To describe the characteristics of the follow-up with positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT)(PET/CT) and its impact in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors after curative resection in a university hospital in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Consecutive review of patient's hospital charts who underwent presurgical staging with PET/CT for curative resection of colorectal cancer between April 2005 and March 2008. The follow-up data of these patients was reviewed until September 2008. Of 209 patients presurgically staged for CRC, 207 (male/female = 125/82; mean age = 65.3 ± 11.3 years) underwent curative resection and were included in the present study. The compliance rate with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) follow-up guidelines was 53%. The cumulative survival at the end of study interval was 96.4%. The test most commonly used in postoperative follow-up of CRC was the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). PET/CT was the test that detected more patients with recurrent lesions (n = 11, positive predictive value = 23.4), including one patient with an asymptomatic curable recurrence (inguinal lymph node metastasis), also being the most effective test (2.1%). However, its high cost makes it the less cost-effective. The use of PET/CT in the postoperative follow-up after curative resection in CRC has proven to be an individualized and effective alternative in the finding of asymptomatic disease curable. Systematic CEA tests with contrast-enhanced CT as a first line of screening and PET/CT as a second line may be an alternative follow up approach after curative resection for CRC.
Taguchi M.,Dokkyo University
Psychological Reports | Year: 2010
Differences in drawing movements with the dominant and nondominant hands by 41 right-handed students from Japan (9 men, 12 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.4) and Germany (13 men, 7 women; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 3.0) were investigated. Participants were asked to use each hand to draw a circle, a pentagon, and a rhombus in one stroke. Analysis showed that Japanese participants drew a circle clockwise with the dominant right hand, starting from 6 or 7 o'clock on the face of a clock, while the German participants drew the circle counterclockwise, starting from 11 or 12 o'clock. Moreover, when drawing a pentagon and a rhombus with the right hand, Japanese participants drew counterclockwise from the top-center vertex, whereas almost half of German participants drew clockwise from the left side and others drew counterclockwise from the top-center vertex. Using the left hand, no significant difference was found in starting positions or directionality. Cultural differences in the starting positions and directionality when using the dominant right hand probably reflect the influence of writing habits on the drawing movement of the dominant hand. © Psychological Reports 2010.
Kojima M.,Dokkyo University
Journal of clinical and experimental hematopathology : JCEH | Year: 2010
Atypical lymphoplasmacytic immunoblastic proliferation (ALPIB) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) associated with autoimmune disease (AID). To further clarify the clinicopathologic, immunohistological, and genotypic findings of ALPIB in lymph nodes associated with well-documented AIDs, 9 cases are presented. These 9 patients consisted of 4 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and one case each with Sjögren's syndrome and dermatomyositis. All 9 patients were females aged from 25 to 71 years with a median age of 49 years. Four cases presented with lymphadenopathy as the initial manifestation. In 4 patients, immunosuppressive drugs were administered before the onset of lymph node lesion. However, none of the 9 patients received methotrexate therapy. The present 9 cases were characterized by : (i) prominent lymphoplasmacytic and B-immunoblastic infiltration ; (ii) absence of pronounced arborizing vascular proliferation ; (iii) absence of CD10(+) "clear cells" ; (iv) presence of hyperplastic germinal center in 7 cases ; (v) immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a reactive nature of the T- and B-lymphocytes ; and (vi) on in situ hybridization, there were no Epstein-Barr virus -infected lymphoid cells in any of the 9 cases. Overall 5-year survival of our patients was 83%. The combination of clinical, immunophenotypic, and genotypic findings indicated that the present 9 cases can be regarded as having an essentially benign reactive process. Finally, we emphasized that ALPIB should be added to the differential diagnostic problems of atypical LPDs, particularly lymph node lesions of IgG4-related diseases.