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München, Germany

Dallongeville S.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Richter M.,Doerner Institute | Richter M.,University of Glasgow | Schafer S.,Stephan Schafer Conservacao e Restauracao Ltda. | And 4 more authors.

This work provides the first identification of fish glue from a few micrograms of a 17th century artwork sample using an adapted proteomics approach. Fish glue has been widely used as a binder in various art objects such as paintings, manuscripts or polychrome objects however its authentication remains particularly challenging. The lack of information on fish species in genomic and proteomic databases represents a major drawback. A supplementary difficulty is provided by the historical sample features, i.e. a few micrograms of a 17th century polychrome object with a multilayered structure. SYPRO® Ruby staining was used as a screening technique to probe the presence of proteins in the sample cross-section. Results revealed the presence of several layers containing proteins among which a thin proteinaceous layer located between the silver leaf and the glaze. This thin layer is described as fish glue coating by historical sources but its composition has not been identified yet. The optimized methodology, based on high resolution mass spectrometry and adapted bioinformatic tools, was successfully applied to 50 μg of a polychromy sample and resulted in the identification of several collagen proteins. Extensive interpretation of data generated by tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of proteins from different biological origins. In particular, seven peptides specific to fish collagen proteins were identified for the first time proving the presence of fish glue in the sample and corroborating information found in historical texts dealing with the polychromy technique. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 9.65M | Year: 2009

CHARISMA is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative that brings together 22 leading European institutions developing research on artwork materials and their deterioration finalised to the conservation of cultural heritage. The consortium has the objective to optimise the use of infrastructures through a coordinated program of transnational access, joint research and networking activities. Transnational access offers applicants opportunities to exploit the services of three different and complementary groups of facilities, embedded in a multidisciplinary environment involving material science and artwork conservation/restoration. They are: i) a group of six archives containing a huge amount of analytical data, hosted by the most prestigious European museums and institutions developing safeguard and conservation of cultural heritage; ii) a set of advanced portable instrumentation for in-situ non-invasive measurements in the same site where the artworks are located or exhibited; iii) two platforms, one in France and one in Hungary, where large scale facilities are coupled to a set of medium scale instrumentations, open to users for the most advanced studies on artwork materials and their alterations. Research is devoted: i) to improve access to databases exploiting digitalisation of data and their harmonisation; ii) to design and set-up innovative instrumentations, for in-situ 2D and 3D examinations of artworks, and new cleaning techniques; iii) to develop new methodologies for the study of organic materials and their distribution in micro-samples or directly at the surface of the object. Through networking, the way infrastructures are working is improved, harmonising methodologies and best practices in analysis and conservation, pursuing the establishment of a multidisciplinary synergic working method, based on shared use of knowledge and resources.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008. | Award Amount: 6.56M | Year: 2009

Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our time which also threatens cultural heritage. As a non-renewable important resource to the European identity, sustainable adaptation strategies are required for long term preservation. For this purpose and for the first time ever, the CLIMATE FOR CULTURE project will couple completely new high resolution (10x10km) climate change evolution scenarios with whole building simulation models to identify the risks for specific regions. The innovation lies in the elaboration of a more reliable damage assessment by connecting the future climate data with whole building simulation models and new damage assessment functions. In situ measurements at UNESCO sites throughout Europe will allow a much more precise and integrated assessment of the real damage impact of climate change on cultural heritage. Appropriate sustainable mitigation/adaptation strategies, also from previous projects, are further developed and applied on the basis of these findings simultaneously. All these results will be incorporated into an assessment of the economic impacts. In order to ensure an efficient use of resources, this project will build on the results of already concluded EU research projects (Noahs Ark). Techniques from FP5/6 projects will be reassessed for their applicability in future scenarios at different regions in Europe and Mediterranean to fully meet sustainability criteria. The proposed project will thus be able to estimate more systematically the damage potential of climate change on European cultural heritage. The team consists of 27 multidisciplinary partners from all over Europe and Egypt including the worlds leading institutes in climate modelling and whole building simulation. The final achievement of the project will be a macro-economic impact report on cultural heritage in the times of climate change akin to the STERN report which would be a truly European contribution to future IPCC Reports.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 8.16M | Year: 2015

IPERION CH aims to establish the unique pan-European research infrastructure in Heritage Science by integrating national world-class facilities at research centres, universities and museums. The cross-disciplinary consortium of 23 partners (from 12 Member States and the US) offers access to instruments, methodologies and data for advancing knowledge and innovation in the conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. Fourth in a line of successful projects (CHARISMA-FP7, Eu-ARTECH-FP6 and LabS-TECH network-FP5), IPERION CH widens trans-national access by adding new providers with new expertise and instruments to the three existing complementary platforms ARCHLAB, FIXLAB and MOLAB. The quality of access services will be improved through joint research activities focused on development of new advanced diagnostic techniques and (with DARIAH ERIC) tools for storing and sharing scientific cultural heritage data. Networking activities will (a) promote innovation through technology transfer and dynamic involvement of SMEs; (b) improve access procedures by setting up a coordinated and integrated approach for harmonising and enhancing interoperability among the facilities; (c) identify future scientific challenges, best practices and protocols for measurements; (d) optimise the use of digital tools in Heritage Science. To advance the international role of EU cultural heritage research, IPERION CH will generate social and cultural innovation by training a new generation of researchers and professionals and by worldwide dissemination and communication to diverse audiences. To ensure long-term sustainability, the advanced community of IPERION CH will work towards inclusion in the new ESFRI Roadmap and constitution of a RI with its own EU legal entity (e.g. ERIC). Synergies with national and local bodies, and with managing authorities in charge of ESIF, will expand the scope and impact of IPERION CH in terms of competitiveness, innovation, growth and jobs in ERA.

Engelbrecht H.,Hessstrasse 96 | Follmi K.B.,University of Lausanne | Baumer U.,Doerner Institute | Koller J.,Doerner Institute
Swiss Journal of Geosciences

A resin nodule was found in glauconite-rich detrital sediments of the Cretaceous Garschella Formation (Aptian to Albian) outcropping at Langer Köchel (Bavaria, S Germany). Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of the fossil resin revealed dealkylation and the total defunctionalisation of its polycyclic constituents. Besides many unspecific components a specific one, agathalene, has survived. Agathalene also presents a strongly degraded product, but may have been derived from its natural precursor agathic acid, which is a very specific constituent (biomarker) of recent and fossil kauri resin. Although agathalene is a far less specific secondary biomarker, it indicates the botanic origin of the fossil resin nodule. Besides other potential producers of agathic acid, precursors of the present-day conifer species Agathisdammara and A. australis were distributed in a wider palaeophytogeographic range than today and might have been the botanical source of kauri resin. In view of the east-west directed Early Cretaceous surface current system of the Tethys ocean, the palaeogeographic provenance of the Werdenfels resin nodule probably was a mainland positioned further to the east or southeast of the Helvetic shelf, to where it was transported probably by driftwood of the resin-producing Agathis sp. © 2010 Swiss Geological Society. Source

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