Doctors with Africa CUAMM

San Francesco al Campo, Italy

Doctors with Africa CUAMM

San Francesco al Campo, Italy

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PubMed | Doctors with Africa CUAMM, Fondazione Ca Granda and Wolisso County hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2016

To evaluate the functionality of an ambulance service dedicated to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) that referred pregnant women to health centers for delivery assistance or to a hospital for the management of obstetric complications.A retrospective study investigated an ambulance referral system for EmOC in a rural area of Ethiopia between July 1 and December 31, 2013. The service was available 24h a day and was free of charge. Women requesting referral were transported to nearby health centers. Assistance was provided locally for uncomplicated deliveries. Women with obstetric complications were referred from health centers to a hospital.A total of 528 ambulance referrals were recorded. The majority of patients (314 [59.5%]) were transported from villages to health centers. The remaining individuals were brought to a hospital, having been referred from health centers (179 [33.9%]) or were referred directly from villages owing to hospital proximity (35 [6.6%]). Of the 179 patients referred to the hospital from health centers, 84 (46.9%) were diagnosed with major direct obstetric complications. No maternal deaths were recorded among patients using the ambulance service. The cost of the ambulance service was US$ 18.47 per referred patient.An ambulance service dedicated to EmOC that interconnected health centers and a hospital facilitated referrals and better utilized local resources.


Quaglio G.,Foresight | Goerens C.,Parliament | Putoto G.,Doctors with Africa CUAMM | Rubig P.,Parliament | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

The Ebola virus epidemic has topped media and political agendas for months; several countries in west Africa have faced the worst Ebola epidemic in history. At the beginning of the disease outbreak, European Union (EU) policies were notably absent regarding how to respond to the crisis. Although the epidemic is now receding from public view, this crisis has undoubtedly changed the European public perception of Ebola virus disease, which is no longer regarded as a bizarre entity confined in some unknown corner in Africa. Policy makers and researchers in Europe now have an opportunity to consider the lessons learned. In this Personal View, we discuss the EU's response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa. Unfortunately, although ample resources and opportunities for humanitarian and medical action existed, the EU did not use them to promote a rapid and well coordinated response to the Ebola crisis. Lessons learned from this crisis should be used to improve the role of the EU in similar situations in the future, ensuring that European aid can be effectively deployed to set up an improved emergency response system, and supporting the establishment of sustainable health-care services in west Africa. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Parliament, Médecins Sans Frontières, Foresight, Institute Pasteur Paris and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Lancet. Infectious diseases | Year: 2016

The Ebola virus epidemic has topped media and political agendas for months; several countries in west Africa have faced the worst Ebola epidemic in history. At the beginning of the disease outbreak, European Union (EU) policies were notably absent regarding how to respond to the crisis. Although the epidemic is now receding from public view, this crisis has undoubtedly changed the European public perception of Ebola virus disease, which is no longer regarded as a bizarre entity confined in some unknown corner in Africa. Policy makers and researchers in Europe now have an opportunity to consider the lessons learned. In this Personal View, we discuss the EUs response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa. Unfortunately, although ample resources and opportunities for humanitarian and medical action existed, the EU did not use them to promote a rapid and well coordinated response to the Ebola crisis. Lessons learned from this crisis should be used to improve the role of the EU in similar situations in the future, ensuring that European aid can be effectively deployed to set up an improved emergency response system, and supporting the establishment of sustainable health-care services in west Africa.


Wilunda C.,Doctors with Africa CUAMM | Massawe S.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Jackson C.,University of Queensland | Jackson C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2013

Objective: To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. Methods: We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Results: Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | Doctors with Africa CUAMM, University of Padua, University of Bari, Hospital of Aber and Central Hospital of Beira
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Trials | Year: 2016

Neonatal hypothermia is an important challenge associated with morbidity and mortality. Preventing neonatal hypothermia is important in high-resource countries, but is of fundamental importance in low-resource settings where supportive care is limited. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a low-cost intervention that, whenever possible, is strongly recommended for temperature maintenance. During KMC, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend the use of a cap/hat, but its effect on temperature control during KMC remains to be established. In the hospitals participating in the projects of the non-governmental organization CUAMM, KMC represents a standard of care, but the heads of the babies often remain uncovered due to local habits or to the unavailability of a cap. The aim of the present study will be to assess the effectiveness and safety of using a woolen cap in maintaining normothermia in low-birth-weight infants (LBWI) during KMC.This is a multicenter (three hospitals), multicountry (three countries), prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled trial of KMC treatment with and without a woolen cap in LBWI. After obtaining parental consent, all infants with a birth weight below 2500g and who are candidates for KMC, based on the clinical decision of the attending physician, will be assigned to the KMC with a woolen cap group or to the KMC without a woolen cap group in a 1:1 ratio according to a computer-generated, randomized sequence. The duration of the study will be until the patients discharge, with a maximum treatment duration of 7days. The primary outcome measure will be whether the infants temperatures remain within the normal range (36.5-37.5C) in the course of KMC during the intervention. In all participants, axillary temperature will be measured with a digital thermometer four times per day. In addition, maternal and room temperature will be recorded. Secondary outcome measures will be: episodes of apnea; sepsis; mortality before hospital discharge; in-hospital growth; and age at discharge.The findings of this study will be important for other units/settings in high- as well low-resource countries where KMC is routinely performed. Based on the results of the present study, we could speculate whether the use of a woolen cap may help to maintain the neonate within the normal thermal range. Furthermore, potential complications such as hyperthermia will be strictly monitored and collected.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02645526 (registered on 31 December 2015).


PubMed | Doctors with Africa CUAMM, Reproductive and Child Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Regional Medical Office
Type: Journal Article | Journal: African health sciences | Year: 2016

Strategies to tackle maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa include expanding coverage of reproductive services. Even where high, more vulnerable women may not access services. No data is available on high coverage determinants. We investigated this in Tanzania in a predicted high utilization area.Data was collected through a household survey of 464 women with a recent delivery. Primary outcomes were facility delivery and 4 ANC visits. Determinants were analysed using multivariate regression.Almost all women had attended ANC, though only 58.3% had 4 visits. 4 visits were more likely in the youngest age group (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.32-5.49, p=0.008), and in early ANC attenders (OR 3.2 95% CI 2.04-4.90, p<0.001). Facility delivery was greater than expected (87.7%), more likely in more educated women (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.50-4.75, p=0.002), in those within 5 kilometers of a facility (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.59-6.48, p=0.002), and for early ANC attenders (OR 2.4 95% CI 1.20-4.91, p=0.02).Rural contexts can achieve high facility delivery coverage. Based on our findings, strategies to reach women yet unserved should include promotion of early ANC start particularly for the less educated, and improvement of distant communities access to facilities.


PubMed | Doctors with Africa CUAMM, Central Hospital of Beira and University of Padua
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC pregnancy and childbirth | Year: 2016

Neonatal mortality remains a serious health issue especially in low resource countries, where 99% of neonatal deaths occur. Doctors with Africa CUAMM is an Italian non-governmental organization in the field of healthcare that has been working in Africa since 1955. In Mozambique, at the Central Beira Hospital (CBH), it has a project with the aim of supporting the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the Obstetrical Department of the CBH through a multi-level intervention. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of CUAMM continuous Quality Improvement intervention in terms of reduction of the overall neonatal mortality rate in the NICU of CBH.A baseline analysis was performed in order to assess the actual standard of neonatal care. Subsequently, the intervention was focused on three main areas: infrastructure, equipment and clinical protocols improvement. A retrospective pre- (2013)/post- (2014) implementation analysis of clinical outcomes was performed.Total population included 4,276 newborns, 2,118 (50%) born in 2013 and 2158 (50%) born after implementation. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar apart from a higher incidence of outborn neonates (33% vs 30%, p=0.02) and a lower incidence of Apgar score<7 at 5min (37% vs 43%, p<0.01). The rates of admissions for asphyxia (22% vs 30%), sepsis (4% vs 7%) and prematurity (18% vs 28%) increased between the two study period. Mortality rate for each of these causes decreased from before to after the implementation: asphyxia (34% vs 19%, p<0.01), sepsis (39% vs 28%, p=0.06) and prematurity (43% vs 33%, p<0.01).We found a reduction in mortality rate among newborns admitted to CBHs NICU after the first year of CUAMM intervention. Most of this reduction can be attributed to the decrease in deaths for asphyxia, sepsis and prematurity. A Quality Improvement intervention based on infrastructural, equipment and clinical objectives was associated with a reduction of neonatal mortality rate in a low-resource NICU.


Segagni Lusignani L.,Medical University of Vienna | Quaglio G.,Doctors with Africa CUAMM | Quaglio G.,Research and Planning | Atzori A.,Doctors with Africa CUAMM | And 5 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a great challenge to public health in sub-Saharan Africa. Most transmissions occur between the onset of coughing and initiation of treatment. Delay in diagnosis is significant to disease prognosis, thus early diagnosis and prompt effective therapy represent the key elements in controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the patient delay and the health system delay in TB diagnosis in Angola.Methods: On a cross-sectional study, 385 TB patients who visited 21 DOTS clinics in Luanda were included consecutively. The time from the onset of symptoms to the first consultation of health providers (patients' delay) and the time from the first consultation to the date of diagnosis (health system's delay) were analysed. Bivariate and logistics regression were applied to analyse the risk factors of delays.Results: The median total time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 45 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-97 days). The median patient delay was 30 days (IQR: 14-60 days), and the median health care system delay was 7 days (IQR: 5-15 days). Primary education (AOR = 1.75; CI [95%] 1.06-2.88; p <0.029) and the health centre of the first contact differing from the DOTS centre (AOR = 1.66; CI [95%] 1.01-2.75; p <0.046) were independent risk factors for patient delay >4 weeks. Living in a suburban area (AOR = 2,32; CI [95%] 1.21-4.46; p = 0.011), having a waiting time in the centre >1 hour (AOR = 4.37; CI [95%] 1.72-11.14; p = 0.002) and the health centre of the first contact differening from the DOTS centre (AOR = 5.68; CI [95%] 2.72-11,83; p < 0,00001) were factors influencing the system delay.Conclusions: The results indicate that the delay is principally due to the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the first consultation. More efforts should be placed in ensuring the availability of essential resources and skills in all healthcare facilities other than the DOTS centres, especially those located in suburban areas. © 2013 Segagni Lusignani et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Doctors with Africa CUAMM and Kyoto University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproductive health | Year: 2016

Despite recent achievements in health targets, Ethiopia still faces challenges in health service delivery. Between 2012 and 2015, a non-governmental organisation (NGO), Doctors with Africa CUAMM, implemented a multifaceted project aimed at improving access to maternal and child health services in three districts in Ethiopia. This paper evaluates the performance of this project, based on four maternal health indicators.A before-and-after study utilising data collected through cross-sectional surveys involving 999 women was conducted. The date of delivery was used to stratify the intervention period as follows: pre-intervention, early intervention, and late intervention. Changes during the intervention in the coverage of four antenatal care (ANC) visits, receipt of three basic components of ANC, skilled birth attendant (SBA) at delivery, and postnatal care (PNC) in seven days were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors.There was an increase in thecoverage of receipt of all three ANC components and SBA at delivery between the pre-intervention period and the late intervention period. The percent of health centre deliveries increased from 7.3% in the pre-intervention period to 35.6% in the late intervention period. The odds of receiving all three components of ANC were twice higher in the late intervention period than in the pre-intervention period (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.12-3.89). The odds of SBA at delivery were five times higher in the late intervention period than in the pre-intervention period (OR 5.04; 95% CI 2.53-10.06). There was no significant change in the coverage of four ANC visits and PNC after accounting for sociodemographic factors.This NGO implemented maternal health project in three districts in Ethiopia was associated with increased likelihood that a pregnant woman would receive three basic components of ANC and be assisted by a SBA at delivery. Increase in skilled birth attendance was driven by increased utilisation of health centres. More efforts are needed to bolster the coverage of ANC and PNC.


PubMed | Doctors with Africa CUAMM, Tenri University, Kyoto University and World Health Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

South Sudan has one of the worlds poorest health indicators due to a fragile health system and a combination of socio-cultural, economic and political factors. This study was conducted to identify barriers to utilisation of institutional childbirth services in Rumbek North County.Data were collected through 14 focus group discussions with 169 women and 45 men, and 18 key informant interviews with community leaders, staff working in health facilities, traditional birth attendants, and the staff of the County Health Department. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis.The barriers to institutional childbirth were categorised under four main themes: 1) Issues related to access and lack of resources: long distance to health facilities, lack of transportation means, referral problems, flooding and poor roads, and payments in health facilities; 2) Issues related to the socio-cultural context and conflict: insecurity, influence of the husband, lack of birth preparedness, domestic chores of women, influence of culture; 3) Perceptions about pregnancy and childbirth: perceived benefit of institutional childbirth, low childbirth risk perception, and medicalisation of childbirth including birth being perceived to be natural, undesirable birth practices, privacy concerns, and fear of caesarean section; and 4) Perceptions about the quality of care: inadequate health facility infrastructure and perceived neglect during admission.Multiple factors hinder institutional childbirth in Rumbek North. Some of the factors such as insecurity and poor roads are outside the scope of the health sector and will require a multi-sectoral approach if childbirth services are to be made accessible to women. Detailed recommendations to increase utilisation of childbirth services in the county have been suggested.

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