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Sethiya N.K.,M. S. University of Baroda | Nahata A.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya | Dixit V.K.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya | Mishra S.H.,M. S. University of Baroda
European Journal of Integrative Medicine

Aim of the study: In southern India, ayurvedic practitioners traditionally employ the whole herb of Canscora decussata Schult. (CD) (Gentianaceae) as a traditional ayruvedic medicine, Shankhpushpi for its memory potentiating, anxiolytic and tranquilizing properties. The present study investigated the effect of CD, which is regarded as Shankhpushpi, for its effects on learning and memory in rodents. The extract was further studied for its in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potential which can correlate with its cognition boosting effect. Materials and methods: Ethanol extract of CD was analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ethanol extract of CD was investigated for its AChE enzyme inhibitory activity. Nootropic activity using Elevated plus maze apparatus, passive avoidance (Cook and Weidley's pole climbing, step down) paradigms and active avoidance (two compartment shuttle box) test were used to learning and memory. Results: HPTLC and HPLC fingerprinting of ethanol extract revealed presence of mangiferin as its main constituent. It was found that CD potentially inhibits AChE with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of 165.667±0.213μg/ml. It was found that groups (n=6), receiving ethanol extract in doses of 200 and 400mg/kg p.o. significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3mg/kg i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam (100mg/kg p.o.) as the standard. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of CD showed significant effects on learning behavior and memory enhancement as evidenced from the experiments performed. The activity may be attributed to the presence of various xanthones and mangiferin, a polyphenolic xanthone. © 2011. Source

Nahata A.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya | Saxena A.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Suri N.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Saxena A.K.,Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine | Dixit V.K.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya
Integrative Cancer Therapies

Purpose. The study was designed to screen Sphaeranthus indicus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Urtica dioica for their anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines. Phytochemical screening of active extracts was also planned. Methods. Petroleum ether, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of S indicus Linn, G lucidum P Karst, and U dioica Linn were subjected to cytotoxicity studies using 7 different cancer cell lines. Potent cytotoxicity was noted in petroleum ether extract of S indicus (SIP), which inhibited proliferation of various cancer cell lines. Growth inhibition was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Two biochemical markers, namely β-sitosterol and 7-hydroxyfrullanolide were isolated and characterized using high-performance thin layer chromatography, melting point, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass analysis. Cytotoxicity of isolated β-sitosterol and 7-hydroxyfrullanolide were also determined. The IC50 of SIP was calculated in the HL-60 cells and was found to be 53 μg/mL. Furthermore, SIP induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells as measured by several biological end points. Cell cycle analysis and change in mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by flow cytometry. Subsequently, using annexin V/PI assay, proportion of cells actively undergoing apoptosis was determined. Changes in DNA were observed by DNA ladder assay. Results. SIP induced apoptotic bodies formation, induced DNA laddering, enhanced annexin-V-FITC binding of the cells, increased sub-G0 DNA fraction, and induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in HL-60 cells. SIP also elevated the caspase 3 and caspase 9 levels in the HL-60 cells, which clearly indicates the involvement of the intrinsic proteins in inducing apoptosis. Discussion. All the above parameters revealed that SIP induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HL-60 cells. The criterion for anticancer activity in cytotoxicity assay was ≥70% growth inhibition at 100 μg/mL against at least 4 cell lines. As G lucidum and U dioica did not exhibit appreciable inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines (less than 50%), they were not included in the study thereafter. The results established that SIP has apoptosis-inducing effect against HL-60 cells in vitro and is a promising candidate for further anticancer study. β-Sitosterol and 7-hydroxyfrullanolide can be considered to be potent anticancer compounds isolated from SIP on the basis of present studies. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Kaurav B.P.S.,P.A. College | Wanjari M.M.,Central Research Institute Ay Amkho | Chandekar A.,P.A. College | Chauhan N.S.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya | Upmanyu N.,P.A. College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Objective: To study the influence of methanolic and aqueous extract of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) root on the marble-burying behavior of mice a well-accepted model of obsessive compulsive behavior. Methods: Mice were divided in different groups (n = 6). Fluoxetine (5, 10, 15 mg/kg), (10, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and methanolic extract W. somnifera (MEWS) (10, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg) were administered i.p. 30 min. prior to the assessment of marble burying behavior and locomotor activity. The control group received vehicle of the extract. Results: Administration of aqueous extracts W. somnifera (AEWS) and MEWS (50 mg/kg) successively decreaesed the marble burying behavior activity without affecting motor activity. This effect of AEWS and MEWS was comparable to standard fluoxetine, ritanserin and parachlorophenylalanine. Conclusions: W. somnifera extract is effective in treating obsessive compulsive disorder. © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Source

Nahata A.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya | Dixit V.K.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya

The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3mgkg -1 s.c.) for 28days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50mgkg -1 p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20mgkg -1 p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1mgkg -1 p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Nahata A.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya | Dixit V.K.,Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya

The aim of the present study was to find out whether Ganoderma lucidum (GL) can be used as a clinically effective medicine for the management of prostatic hyperplasia. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of GL. A biochemical marker viz. β-sitosterol was identified and characterised in the extracts utilising high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Testosterone (3mgkg -1s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts (10, 20 and 50mgkg -1p.o.) and β-sitosterol (10 and 20mgkg -1p.o.) for a period of 28days. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1mgkg -1p.o.). GL extracts attenuated the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio induced by testosterone. Petroleum ether extract exhibiting the best activity. Ethanolic extract also exhibited significant activity. The urine output also improved significantly, which emphasise the clinical implications of the study. Testosterone levels measured weekly and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels measured at the end of the study also support our claims. The PSA levels decreased in the extract-treated groups, indicating their usefulness in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Histological studies have shown a considerable improvement in the prostatic histoarchitecture in the extract-treated groups when compared to the testosterone-treated group. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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