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Palo Alto, CA, United States

Fu F.,DOCOMO United States Labs | Fu F.,Intel Corporation | Kozat U.C.,DOCOMO Innovations Inc.
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking | Year: 2013

We propose a new framework for wireless network virtualization. In this framework, service providers (SPs) and the network operator (NO) are decoupled from each other: The NO is solely responsible for spectrum management, and SPs are responsible for quality-of-service (QoS) management for their own users. SPs compete for the shared wireless resources to satisfy their distinct service objectives and constraints. We model the dynamic interactions among SPs and the NO as a stochastic game. SPs bid for the resources via dynamically announcing their value functions. The game is regulated by the NO through: 1) sum-utility optimization under rate region constraints; 2) enforcement of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism for pricing the instantaneous rate consumption; and 3) declaration of conjectured prices for future resource consumption. We prove that there exists one Nash equilibrium in the conjectural prices that is efficient, i.e., the sum-utility is maximized. Thus, the NO has the incentive to compute the equilibrium point and feedback to SPs. Given the conjectural prices and the VCG mechanism, we also show that SPs must reveal their truthful value functions at each step to maximize their long-term utilities. As another major contribution, we develop an online learning algorithm that allows the SPs to update the value functions and the NO to update the conjectural prices iteratively. Thus, the proposed framework can deal with unknown dynamics in traffic characteristics and channel conditions. We present simulation results to show the convergence to the Nash equilibrium prices under various dynamic traffic and channel conditions. © 1993-2012 IEEE. Source

Mukherjee S.,DOCOMO Innovations Inc.
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2012

The Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (SINR) on a wireless link is an important basis for consideration of outage, capacity, and throughput in a cellular network. It is therefore important to understand the SINR distribution within such networks, and in particular heterogeneous cellular networks, since these are expected to dominate future network deployments. Until recently the distribution of SINR in heterogeneous networks was studied almost exclusively via simulation, for selected scenarios representing pre-defined arrangements of users and the elements of the heterogeneous network such as macro-cells, femto-cells, etc. However, the dynamic nature of heterogeneous networks makes it difficult to design a few representative simulation scenarios from which general inferences can be drawn that apply to all deployments. In this paper, we examine the downlink of a heterogeneous cellular network made up of multiple tiers of transmitters (e.g., macro-, micro-, pico-, and femto-cells) and provide a general theoretical analysis of the distribution of the SINR at an arbitrarily-located user. Using physically realistic stochastic models for the locations of the base stations (BSs) in the tiers, we can compute the general SINR distribution in closed form. We illustrate a use of this approach for a three-tier network by calculating the probability of the user being able to camp on a macro-cell or an open-access (OA) femto-cell in the presence of Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) femto-cells. We show that this probability depends only on the relative densities and transmit powers of the macro- and femto-cells, the fraction of femto-cells operating in OA vs. Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) mode, and on the parameters of the wireless channel model. For an operator considering a femto overlay on a macro network, the parameters of the femto deployment can be selected from a set of universal curves. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Lopez-Perez D.,Kings College London | Chu X.,Kings College London | Guvenc I.,DOCOMO Innovations Inc.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing | Year: 2012

In order to expand the downlink (DL) coverage areas of picocells in the presence of an umbrella macrocell, the concept of range expansion has been recently proposed, in which a positive range expansion bias (REB) is added to the DL received signal strengths (RSSs) of picocell pilot signals at user equipments (UEs). Although range expansion may increase DL footprints of picocells, it also results in severe DL inter-cell interference in picocell expanded regions (ERs), because ER picocell user equipments (PUEs) are not connected to the cells that provide the strongest DL RSSs. In this paper, we derive closed-form formulas to calculate appropriate REBs for two different range expansion strategies, investigate both DL and uplink (UL) inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) to enhance picocell performance, and propose a new macrocell-picocell cooperative scheduling scheme to mitigate both DL and UL interference caused by macrocells to ER PUEs. Simulation results provide insights on REB selection approaches at picocells, and demonstrate the benefits of the proposed macrocell-picocell cooperative scheduling scheme over alternative approaches. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Guvenc I.,DOCOMO Innovations Inc.
IEEE Communications Letters | Year: 2011

Range expansion and inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) can improve the capacity and fairness of heterogeneous network (HetNet) deployments by off-loading macrocell users to low-power nodes. Due to difficulties in analytical treatment, current studies for range expansion and ICIC in HetNets rely mostly on simulations. In this letter, first, off-loading benefits of range expansion in HetNets are captured through cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the downlink signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) difference between the macrocell and strongest picocell signals. Then, these CDFs are used to investigate the system capacity and fairness as a continuous function of the range expansion bias, and benefits of using ICIC with range expansion are demonstrated through numerical results. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Wang C.,DOCOMO Innovations Inc. | Gou T.,Samsung | Jafar S.A.,University of California at Irvine
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2014

We show that the three-user MT ×MR Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) interference channel where each transmitter is equipped with MT antennas and each receiver is equipped with MR antennas has d(M, N) δ= min δ M 2?1/? , N 2+1/?degrees of freedom (DoF) normalized by time, frequency, and space dimensions, where M = min(MT , MR), N = max(MT , MR), κ δ = κ M N?M. While the DoF outer bound of d(M, N) is established for every MT , MR value, the achievability of d(M, N) DoF is established in general subject to a normalization with respect to spatial extensions, i.e., the scaling of the number of antennas at all nodes. In particular, we show that qd(M, N) DoF are achievable for the three-user MT ×qMR MIMO interference channel, for some positive integer q, which may be seen as a spatial extension factor. q is the scaling factor needed to make the value qd(M, N) an integer. Given spatial extensions, the achievability relies only on linear beamforming based interference alignment schemes and requires neither channel extensions nor channel variations in time or frequency. In the absence of spatial extensions, it is shown through examples how essentially the same interference alignment scheme may be applied over time-extensions over either constant or time-varying channels. The central new insight to emerge from this paper is the notion of subspace alignment chains as the DoF bottlenecks. The subspace alignment chains are instrumental both in identifying the extra dimensions to be provided by a genie to a receiver for the DoF outer bound, as well as in the construction of the optimal interference alignment schemes. The DoF value d(M, N) is a piecewise linear function of M, N, with either M or N being the bottleneck within each linear segment, whereas the other value contains some redundancy, i.e., it can be reduced without reducing the DoF. The corner points of these piecewise linear segments correspond to two sets, A δ = {1/2, 2/3, 3/4, . . .} and B δ = {1/3, 3/5, 5/7, . . .}. The set A contains all those values of M/N and only those values of M/N for which there is redundancy in both M and N, contains all those values of M/N and only those values of M/N for which there is no redundancy in either M or N, i.e., neither can be reduced without reducing the DoF. Because A and B represent settings with maximum and minimum redundancy, essentially they are the basis for the DoF outer bounds and inner bounds, respectively. Our results settle the question of feasibility of linear interference alignment, introduced previously by Cenk et al., for the three-user MT×MR MIMO interference channel, completely for all values of MT , MR. In particular, we show that the linear interference alignment problem (MT×M R, d)3 (as defined in previous paper by Cenk et al.) is feasible if and only if d ≤ d(M, N). With the exception of the values M/N B, and only with that exception, we show that for every M/N value there are proper systems (as defined by Cenk et al.) that are not feasible. Evidently the redundancy contained in all other values of M/N manifests itself as superfluous variables that are not discounted in the definition of proper systems, thus creating a discrepancy between proper and feasible systems. Our results show that M/N A are the only values for which there is no DoF benefit of joint processing among co-located antennas at the transmitters or receivers. This may also be seen as a consequence of the maximum redundancy in the M/NA settings. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

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