Van Renterghem P.,DoCoLab UGent |
Van Eenoo P.,DoCoLab UGent
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013
Due to their performance enhancing properties, use of anabolic steroids (e.g. testosterone, nandrolone, etc.) is banned in elite sports. Therefore, doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) screen among others for these prohibited substances in urine. It is particularly challenging to detect misuse with naturally occurring anabolic steroids such as testosterone (T), which is a popular ergogenic agent in sports and society.To screen for misuse with these compounds, drug testing laboratories monitor the urinary concentrations of endogenous steroid metabolites and their ratios, which constitute the steroid profile and compare them with reference ranges to detect unnaturally high values. However, the interpretation of the steroid profile is difficult due to large inter-individual variances, various confounding factors and different endogenous steroids marketed that influence the steroid profile in various ways.A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was developed to statistically evaluate urinary steroid profiles composed of an extended range of steroid profile metabolites. This model makes the interpretation of the analytical data in the quest for deviating steroid profiles feasible and shows its versatility towards different kinds of misused endogenous steroids. The SVM model outperforms the current biomarkers with respect to detection sensitivity and accuracy, particularly when it is coupled to individual data as stored in the Athlete Biological Passport. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Van Renterghem P.,DoCoLab UGent |
Van Eenoo P.,DoCoLab UGent |
Geyer H.,German Sport University Cologne |
Schanzer W.,German Sport University Cologne |
Delbeke F.T.,DoCoLab UGent
Steroids | Year: 2010
The detection of misuse with naturally occuring steroids is a great challenge for doping control laboratories. Intake of natural anabolic steroids alters the steroid profile. Thus, screening for exogenous use of these steroids can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile, and evaluate their concentrations and ratios against reference ranges. Elevated values of the steroid profile constitute an atypical finding after which a confirmatory IRMS procedure is needed to unequivocally establish the exogenous origin of a natural steroid. However, the large inter-individual differences in urinary steroid concentrations and the recent availability of a whole range of natural steroids (e.g. dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione) which each exert a different effect on the monitored parameters in doping control complicate the interpretation of the current steroid profile. The screening of an extended steroid profile can provide additional parameters to support the atypical findings and can give specific information upon the steroids which have been administered. The natural concentrations of 29 endogenous steroids and 11 ratios in a predominantly Caucasian population of athletes were determined. The upper reference values at 97.5%, 99% and 99.9% levels were assessed for male (n = 2027) and female (n = 1004) populations. Monitoring minor metabolites and evaluation of concentration ratios with respect to their natural abundances could improve the interpretation of the steroid profile in doping analysis. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.