Brown J.,DNV GL |
Holt H.,DNV GL Oil and Gas |
Helle K.,DNV GL
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014
The second phase of the CO2PIPETRANS Joint Industry Project (JIP) aims to fill knowledge gaps associated with the safe and reliable pipeline transport of CO2. The JIP has three main focus areas and technical work packages designed to address these. The work packages collect experimental data and experience on dense phase CO2 release model validation data, pipeline fracture arrest, and corrosion. This paper presents an overview of results and conclusions from the work package focusing on collection of data for validation of release models. The JIP consists of 15 partner organisations, who are: Arcelor Mittal, BP, DNV GL, Endesa, ENI, E.on Ruhrgas, Gassco, Gassnova, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) UK, Maersk Oil, Petrobras, Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) Norway, Shell, V&M Tubes, and Vattenfall. The objective of the CO2 release model validation data work package was to collect and make available data for validating release and dispersion models for dense phase CO2. This involved releasing dense phase CO2 from large inventories through orifices ranging in size 6mm to 150mm onto a suitably sized array of instruments to measure the CO2 concentration and temperature profiles. The condition of the CO2 being released was up to 150 barg and 150°C with release durations up to 10 minutes. Most of the releases were in a horizontal orientation 1m above the ground but during some of the tests the orientation was changed to be upwards, downwards to impact the ground, or into an enclosure. In addition to the CO2 releases described above, the work package also undertook rapid depressurisation of a long horizontal pipe containing 100 barg CO2 in order to collect data, amongst other aspects, on shock wave propagation. These experiments used a 200m long, 50mm diameter pipe mounted on load cells with an orifice plate and explosive initiated bursting disk at one end. In addition to measuring data within the pipe during the rapid depressurisation tests, dispersion and temperature data was also recorded downstream of the release for release model validation purposes. The paper presents an overview of the frontier experimental work mentioned above along with discussion on the output of the data review that was subsequently completed during which recorded data was compared with model predictions. Validation of dispersion models and safety studies reduces the uncertainty and hence conservatism required in these studies thereby making design and implementation of CO2 pipelines safer and more cost effective. © 2014 The Authors Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yang K.W.,DNV GL Oil and Gas
RINA, Royal Institution of Naval Architects - ICSOT Korea: Safety of Offshore and Subsea Structures in Extreme and Accidental Conditions 2015, Papers | Year: 2015
According to the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) regulations, risk and working environment analyses shall be carried out to manage major accidents, environmental and other risk, to ensure a sound working environment and to provide support for decision making related to design, construction and operation phases of offshore facilities operated on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). Due to strict requirements for the risk and working environment analyses in NORSOK standards referred to in the PSA regulations and lack of experience of users, there have been challenges on implementing the analyses and utilizing the results of the analyses. This paper will provide an introduction to implementation and application of the risk and working environment analyses for offshore facilities on the NCS based on the PSA regulations and NORSOK standards. © 2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
Hashemi H.,Technical University of Denmark |
Christensen J.M.,Technical University of Denmark |
Gersen S.,DNV GL Oil and Gas |
Glarborg P.,Technical University of Denmark
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute | Year: 2015
Hydrogen oxidation at 50 bar and temperatures of 700-900 K was investigated in a high pressure laminar flow reactor under highly diluted conditions. The experiments provided information about H2 oxidation at pressures above the third explosion limit. The fuel-air equivalence ratio of the reactants was varied from very oxidizing to strongly reducing conditions. The results supplement high-pressure data from RCM (900-1100 K) and shock tubes (900-2200 K). At the reducing conditions (Φ = 12), oxidation started at 748-775 K while it was shifted to 798-823 K for stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions (Φ = 1.03 and 0.05). At very oxidizing conditions (O2 atmosphere, Φ = 0.0009), the temperature for onset of reaction was reduced to 775-798 K. The data were interpreted in terms of a detailed chemical kinetic model, drawn mostly from work of Burke and coworkers. In the present study, the rate constants for the reactions HO2 + OH, OH + OH, and HO2 + HO2 were updated based on recent determinations. The modeling predictions were in good agreement with the measurements in the flow reactor. The predicted H2 oxidation rate was sensitive to the rate of the HO2 + OH reaction, particularly at lean conditions, and the present data support recent values for the rate constant. In addition to the current experiments, the mechanism was evaluated against ignition delay time measurements from rapid compression machines and shock tubes. The model was used to analyze the complex dependence of the ignition delay for H2 on temperature and pressure. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
Laughton A.,DNV GL Oil and Gas
Proceedings of the American Gas Association, Operating Section | Year: 2015
This paper describes how to use the GERG-2008 equation of state (ISO 20765 parts 2 & 3) to calculate the hydrocarbon dew point of natural gas mixtures.
Ahmad M.,DNV GL Oil and Gas |
Gersen S.,DNV GL Oil and Gas
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014
The capture of CO2 from power plants and other large industrial sources is offering a main solution to reduce CO2 emissions. The captured mixture will contain impurities like nitrogen, argon, oxygen, water and some toxic elements like sulfur and nitrogen oxides, the types and quantities of which depend on the type of fuel and the capture process. The presence of free water formation in the transportation pipeline causes severe corrosion problems, flow assurance failure and might damage valves and instrumentations. In the presence of free water, CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase and will partly ionize to form a weak acid. Thus, free water formation should be avoided. This work aims to investigate the solubility of water in CO2 mixtures under pipeline operation conditions in the temperature range of (5 - 35 °C) and the pressure range of (90 - 150 bar). A test set up was constructed, which consists of a high pressure reactor in which a CO2 mixture containing water at initial soluble conditions was prepared. The purpose of this study is to identify the maximum water content level which could be allowed in CO2 transportation pipelines. The experimental data generated were then compared to the calculations of two mixture models: The GERG-2008 model and the EOS-CG model. © 2014 The Authors Published by Elsevier Ltd.