DNGM Research Foundation

New Alipore, India

DNGM Research Foundation

New Alipore, India
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Ghose N.,DNGM Research Foundation | Majumdar K.K.,KPC Medical College and Hospital | Ghose A.K.,DNGM Research Foundation | Mazumder D.N.G.,DNGM Research Foundation
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Chronic arsenic toxicity (Arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a global problem. However, its treatment is unsatisfactory. Methylation of arsenic facilitates its urinary excretion. Persons with relatively lower proportion of urinary dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) are found to have at greater risk of developing symptoms of arsenicosis including its complications. The biochemical pathway responsible for methylation of arsenic is a folate-dependent pathway. Studies in rodents and humans suggest that folate nutritional status influences the metabolism of arsenic. Methods: The present study compares the effect of giving folic acid on 32 arsenicosis patients during a 6-month period and comparing the results with clinical effect of taking only arsenic-free safe water on 45 age and sex-matched arsenic-affected people for the same period. Results: There was significant improvement of arsenical skin lesion score of both patients treated with folic acid (2.96 ± 1.46 to 1.90 ± 0.90, P < 0.001) and arsenic free safe water (2.91 ± 1.26 to 1.62 ± 1.05, P < 0.001) for a period of 6 months. Significant improvement in systemic disease score was also observed from the baseline systemic score in folic acid treated group (4.78 ± 3.43 to 1.00 ± 1.56, P < 0.001) and the group treated with arsenic-free water (1.87 ± 2.11 to 0.82 ± 1.62, P < 0.001).However, there was a significant increased improvement of systematic disease score in the folic acid treated group compared to the control group taking arsenic free water (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that folic acid treatment in arsenicosis cases could help in reducing clinical symptoms of arsenicosis.

Mazumder D.N.,DNGM Research Foundation | Ghosh A.,DNGM Research Foundation | Majumdar K.,KPC Medical College | Ghosh N.,DNGM Research Foundation | Mazumder R.N.,DNGM Research Foundation
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: The global health impact and disease burden due to chronic arsenic toxicity has not been well studied in West Bengal. Objective: To ascertain these, a scientific epidemiological study was carried out in a district of the state. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out by house-to-house survey of arsenic affected villages in the district of Nadia. A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for this survey for the selection of the participants. A total number of 2297 households of 37 arsenic affected villages in all the 17 blocks were surveyed in the district. Result: Out of 10469 participants examined, prevalence rate of arsenicosis was found to be 15.43%. Out of 0.84 million people suspected to be exposed to arsenic, 0.14 million people are estimated to be suffering from arsenicosis in the district. Highest level of arsenic in drinking water sources was found to be 1362 g/l, and in 23% cases it was above 100 g/l. Majority of the population living in the arsenic affected villages were of low socio-economic condition, inadequate education and were farmers or doing physical labour. Chronic lung disease was found in 207 (12.81%) subjects among cases and 69 (0.78%) in controls. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 257 (15.9%) cases and 136 (1.5%) controls. Conclusion: Large number of people in the district of Nadia are showing arsenical skin lesion. However, insufficient education, poverty, lack of awareness and ineffective health care support are major factors causing immense plight to severely arsenic affected people.

Majumdar S.,University of Calcutta | Chanda S.,University of Calcutta | Ganguli B.,5 Ballygunge Circular Road | Mazumder D.N.G.,DNGM Research Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2010

Gene-specific hypermethylation has previously been detected in Arsenic exposed persons. To monitor the level of whole genome methylation in persons exposed to different levels of Arsenic via drinking water, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 64 persons. Uptake of methyl group from 3H labeled S-Adenosyl Methionine after incubation of DNA with SssI methylase was measured. Results showed statistically significant (P = 0.0004) decrease in uptake of 3H methyl group in the persons exposed to 250-500 μg/L arsenic, indicating genomic hypermethylation. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Biswas A.,Kalyani University | Biswas A.,DNGM Research Foundation | Deb D.,University of Calcutta | Deb D.,DNGM Research Foundation | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

We assessed the association between arsenic intake through water and diet, and arsenic levels in first morning-void urine under variable conditions of water contamination. This was done in a 2-year consecutive study in an endemic population. Exposure of arsenic through water and diet was assessed for participants using arsenic-contaminated water (≥50 μg L-1) in a first year (group I) and for participants using water lower in arsenic (<50 μg L-1) in the next year (group II). Participants with and without arsenical skin lesions were considered in the statistical analysis. Median dose of arsenic intake through drinking water in groups I and II males was 7.44 and 0.85 μg kg body wt.-1 day-1 (p <0.0001). In females, it was 5.3 and 0.63 μg kg body wt.-1 day-1 (p <0.0001) for groups I and II, respectively. Arsenic dose through diet was 3.3 and 2.6 μg kg body wt.-1 day-1 (p = 0.088) in males and 2.6 and 1.9 μg kg body wt.-1 day-1 (p = 0.0081) in females. Median arsenic levels in urine of groups I and II males were 124 and 61 μg L-1 (p = 0.052) and in females 130 and 52 μg L-1 (p = 0.0001), respectively. When arsenic levels in the water were reduced to below 50 μg L-1 (Indian permissible limit), total arsenic intake and arsenic intake through the water significantly decreased, but arsenic uptake through the diet was found to be not significantly affected. Moreover, it was found that drinking water mainly contributed to variations in urine arsenic concentrations. However, differences between male and female participants also indicate that not only arsenic uptake, but also many physiological factors affect arsenic behavior in the body and its excretion. As total median arsenic exposure still often exceeded 3.0 μg kg body wt.-1 day-1 (the permissible lower limit established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives) after installation of the drinking water filters, it can be concluded that supplying the filtered water only may not be sufficient to minimize arsenic availability for an already endemic population. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Guha Mazumder D.,DNGM Research Foundation | Dasgupta U.B.,University of Calcutta
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been found to be associated with increased occurrence of arsenic-induced keratosis. Of the various genes involved in the regulation of arsenic metabolism, single-nucleotide polymorphisms of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, in one study, showed increased occurrence of arsenicosis. Copyright © 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

Deb D.,DNGM Research Foundation | Deb D.,University of Calcutta | Biswas A.,DNGM Research Foundation | Biswas A.,Kalyani University | And 5 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective To assess whether nutritional deficiency increases susceptibility to arsenic-related health effects. Design Assessment of nutrition was based on a 24 h recall method of all dietary constituents. Setting Epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted in an arsenic-endemic area of West Bengal with groundwater arsenic contamination. Subjects The study was composed of two groups - Group 1 (cases, n 108) exhibiting skin lesions and Group 2 (exposed controls, n 100) not exhibiting skin lesions - age- and sex-matched and having similar arsenic exposure through drinking water and arsenic levels in urine and hair. Results Both groups belonged to low socio-economic strata (Group 1 significantly poorer, P < 0·01) and had low BMI (prevalence of BMI < 18·5 kg/m2: in 38 % in Group 1 and 27 % in Group 2). Energy intake was below the Recommended Daily Allowance (set by the Indian Council of Medical Research) in males and females in both groups. Increased risk of arsenical skin lesions was found for those in the lowest quintile of protein intake (v. highest quintile: OR = 4·60, 95 % CI 1·36, 15·50 in males; OR = 5·62, 95 % CI 1·19, 34·57 in females). Significantly lower intakes of energy, protein, thiamin, niacin, Mg, Zn and choline were observed in both males and females of Group 1 compared with Group 2. Significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate, riboflavin, niacin and Cu were also observed in female cases with skin lesions compared with non-cases. Conclusions Deficiencies of Zn, Mg and Cu, in addition to protein, B vitamins and choline, are found to be associated with arsenical skin lesions in West Bengal. Copyright © The Authors 2012.

Biswas A.,Kalyani University | Biswas A.,Dngm Research Foundation | Basu B.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya | Bhattacharya K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya | And 2 more authors.
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2013

Arsenic (As) contaminated water and foodstuffs are of major concern. Samples of drinking-cooking water (n = 50), raw rice (n = 50), common vegetables (eight types), and common pulses (three types) were collected from households in the endemic region. The study found up to 70% As reduction by using safe water for cooking of rice and vegetables. Speciation study reflected more arsenate than arsenite and other organic arsenicals in all the types of samples. Male intake of 293 μg As through drinking water contained 38 μg arsenite and 246 μg arsenate, and female intake of 199 μg As contained 167 μg arsenate and 25 μg arsenite. In cooked rice, 108 μg As contained 69 μg arsenate and 17 μg arsenite with 9 μg dimethylarsonic acid (DMA). Total As consumption from cooked vegetables was 45 μg with 34 and 4 μg of arsenite and arsenate, respectively, and 5 μg of DMA. Data indicate that cooking with As-free water removes arsenic in already contaminated foodstuffs but without interconversion of the As species, from toxic inorganic to less toxic organic forms. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Biswas A.,Kalyani University | Biswas A.,Dngm Research Foundation | Biswas S.,Kalyani University | Santra S.C.,Kalyani University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Arsenic contaminated groundwater uses for irrigation potentially lead the incidence of arsenic into food chain. In present study we examined total arsenic concentrations in 32 types of vegetables and 7 types of pulses. Range of total arsenic concentration in edible parts of vegetables collected from grown fields was 0.114-0.910 mg/kg. Highest arsenic values were in spinach 0.910 mg/kg. Vegetable samples were grouped into leafy, non-leafy-fruity, roottubers. 18 common types of vegetables and pulses were collected through market basket survey, total arsenic were approximately 100 mg lower than those observed for the vegetables collected from the fields. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Majumdar K.K.,DNGM Research Foundation
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2012

Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water has been a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India. Although a lot of information is available on health effects due to chronic arsenic toxicity in adults, knowledge of such effect on children is scanty. A review of the available literature has been made to highlight the problem in children. Scientific publications on health effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in children with special reference to psychological issues are reviewed. The prevalence of skin abnormalities such as pigmentation change and keratosis, the diagnostic signs of chronic arsenic toxicity, vary in various arsenic-exposed children population in different regions of the world. The occurrence of chronic lung disease including pulmonary interstitial fibrosis has been described in arsenic-exposed children in Chile. Affection of intellectual function has also been reported to occur in arsenic-exposed children studied in Thailand, Bangladesh, and India. Methylation patterns of arsenic in children aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water causes significant morbidity in children resulting in skin lesions, lung disease, and defect in intellectual function.

Nriagu J.,University of Michigan | Lin T.-S.,National United University | Mazumder D.G.,DNGM Research Foundation | Chatterjee D.,Kalyani University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

Objectives: Although suppression of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) expression and exposure to arsenic have separately been associated with skin lesions, the combined effects of this "gene-environment" interaction have not been explored previously. Study design: A population-based cross-sectional survey. Method: This study involved 100 cases with skin lesions and 100 controls who were family members with no lesions. The subjects were recruited from villages and hamlets in northern Nadia Province, West Bengal. Each participant was required to undergo a detailed face-to-face interview; provide spot urine sample; provide saliva sample; and sign a consent form. The type and severity of skin lesions were assessed during a general medical examination of each participant in the field. The following 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CDH1 were measured using DNA extracted from saliva samples: rs16260, rs5030625, rs155364, rs155808, rs155807, rs2303646, rs2059254, rs9925923, rs12919719, rs7188750, rs9989407, rs7196495, rs7196661, rs13689, rs12599393, and rs1862748. Results: The main effects of SNPs on the risk for skin lesions were borderline for rs7196661 (p-value = 0.092), rs7196495 (p-value = 0.090), and rs12919719 (p-value = 0.065); the strongest association was found for rs9989407 (p-value = 0.058). Several SNPs, however, showed that the T > T genotype carriers are at higher relative risk for skin lesions compared to carriers of the C > C or C > T genotypes; these results need to be confirmed in a larger study. The main effects of some of the SNPs and genotype frequencies on the severity of skin lesions were found to be relatively weak. Conclusions: This is the first study that indicates that CDH1 polymorphisms can contribute to the etiology of premalignant skin lesions in people chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water, and that this gene may be a factor in individual susceptibility to cutaneous diseases. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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