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New Alipore, India

Guha Mazumder D.,DNGM Research Foundation | Dasgupta U.B.,University of Calcutta
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been found to be associated with increased occurrence of arsenic-induced keratosis. Of the various genes involved in the regulation of arsenic metabolism, single-nucleotide polymorphisms of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, in one study, showed increased occurrence of arsenicosis. Copyright © 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

Majumdar K.K.,DNGM Research Foundation
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2012

Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water has been a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India. Although a lot of information is available on health effects due to chronic arsenic toxicity in adults, knowledge of such effect on children is scanty. A review of the available literature has been made to highlight the problem in children. Scientific publications on health effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in children with special reference to psychological issues are reviewed. The prevalence of skin abnormalities such as pigmentation change and keratosis, the diagnostic signs of chronic arsenic toxicity, vary in various arsenic-exposed children population in different regions of the world. The occurrence of chronic lung disease including pulmonary interstitial fibrosis has been described in arsenic-exposed children in Chile. Affection of intellectual function has also been reported to occur in arsenic-exposed children studied in Thailand, Bangladesh, and India. Methylation patterns of arsenic in children aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water causes significant morbidity in children resulting in skin lesions, lung disease, and defect in intellectual function.

Biswas A.,Kalyani University | Biswas A.,DNGM Research Foundation | Biswas S.,Kalyani University | Santra S.C.,Kalyani University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Arsenic contaminated groundwater uses for irrigation potentially lead the incidence of arsenic into food chain. In present study we examined total arsenic concentrations in 32 types of vegetables and 7 types of pulses. Range of total arsenic concentration in edible parts of vegetables collected from grown fields was 0.114-0.910 mg/kg. Highest arsenic values were in spinach 0.910 mg/kg. Vegetable samples were grouped into leafy, non-leafy-fruity, roottubers. 18 common types of vegetables and pulses were collected through market basket survey, total arsenic were approximately 100 mg lower than those observed for the vegetables collected from the fields. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Nriagu J.,University of Michigan | Lin T.-S.,National United University | Mazumder D.G.,DNGM Research Foundation | Chatterjee D.,Kalyani University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

Objectives: Although suppression of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) expression and exposure to arsenic have separately been associated with skin lesions, the combined effects of this "gene-environment" interaction have not been explored previously. Study design: A population-based cross-sectional survey. Method: This study involved 100 cases with skin lesions and 100 controls who were family members with no lesions. The subjects were recruited from villages and hamlets in northern Nadia Province, West Bengal. Each participant was required to undergo a detailed face-to-face interview; provide spot urine sample; provide saliva sample; and sign a consent form. The type and severity of skin lesions were assessed during a general medical examination of each participant in the field. The following 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CDH1 were measured using DNA extracted from saliva samples: rs16260, rs5030625, rs155364, rs155808, rs155807, rs2303646, rs2059254, rs9925923, rs12919719, rs7188750, rs9989407, rs7196495, rs7196661, rs13689, rs12599393, and rs1862748. Results: The main effects of SNPs on the risk for skin lesions were borderline for rs7196661 (p-value = 0.092), rs7196495 (p-value = 0.090), and rs12919719 (p-value = 0.065); the strongest association was found for rs9989407 (p-value = 0.058). Several SNPs, however, showed that the T > T genotype carriers are at higher relative risk for skin lesions compared to carriers of the C > C or C > T genotypes; these results need to be confirmed in a larger study. The main effects of some of the SNPs and genotype frequencies on the severity of skin lesions were found to be relatively weak. Conclusions: This is the first study that indicates that CDH1 polymorphisms can contribute to the etiology of premalignant skin lesions in people chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water, and that this gene may be a factor in individual susceptibility to cutaneous diseases. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mazumder D.N.,DNGM Research Foundation | Ghosh A.,DNGM Research Foundation | Majumdar K.,KPC Medical College | Ghosh N.,DNGM Research Foundation | Mazumder R.N.,DNGM Research Foundation
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: The global health impact and disease burden due to chronic arsenic toxicity has not been well studied in West Bengal. Objective: To ascertain these, a scientific epidemiological study was carried out in a district of the state. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out by house-to-house survey of arsenic affected villages in the district of Nadia. A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for this survey for the selection of the participants. A total number of 2297 households of 37 arsenic affected villages in all the 17 blocks were surveyed in the district. Result: Out of 10469 participants examined, prevalence rate of arsenicosis was found to be 15.43%. Out of 0.84 million people suspected to be exposed to arsenic, 0.14 million people are estimated to be suffering from arsenicosis in the district. Highest level of arsenic in drinking water sources was found to be 1362 g/l, and in 23% cases it was above 100 g/l. Majority of the population living in the arsenic affected villages were of low socio-economic condition, inadequate education and were farmers or doing physical labour. Chronic lung disease was found in 207 (12.81%) subjects among cases and 69 (0.78%) in controls. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 257 (15.9%) cases and 136 (1.5%) controls. Conclusion: Large number of people in the district of Nadia are showing arsenical skin lesion. However, insufficient education, poverty, lack of awareness and ineffective health care support are major factors causing immense plight to severely arsenic affected people.

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