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Lo M.,University of California at San Francisco | Kim H.S.,DNA Way | Zhang Y.,DNA Way | Dennis M.S.,DNA Way | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2017

The antibody Fc region regulates antibody cytotoxic activities and serum half-life. In a therapeutic context, however, the cytotoxic effector function of an antibody is often not desirable and can create safety liabilities by activating native host immune defenses against cells expressing the receptor antigens. Several amino acid changes in the Fc region have been reported to silence or reduce the effector function of antibodies. These earlier studies focused primarily on the interaction of human antibodies with human Fc-γ receptors, and it remains largely unknown how such changes to Fc might translate to the context of a murine antibody. We demonstrate that the commonly used N297G (NG) and D265A, N297G (DANG) variants that are efficacious in attenuating effector function in primates retain potent complement activation capacity in mice, leading to safety liabilities in murine studies. In contrast, we found an L234A, L235A, P329G (LALA-PG) variant that eliminates complement binding and fixation as well as Fc-γ-dependent, antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxity in both murine IgG2a and human IgG1. These LALA-PG substitutions allow a more accurate translation of results generated with an "effectorless" antibody between mice and primates. Further, we show that both human and murine antibodies containing the LALA-PG variant have typical pharmacokinetics in rodents and retain thermostability, enabling efficient knobs-into-holes bispecific antibody production and a robust path to generating highly effector-attenuated bispecific antibodies for preclinical studies. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Hackos D.H.,DNA Way | Hanson J.E.,DNA Way
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2017

NMDA Receptors (NMDARs) play key roles in synaptic physiology and NMDAR hypofunction has been implicated in various neurological conditions. In recent years an increasing number of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDARs have been discovered and characterized. These diverse PAM classes vary not only in their binding sites and GluN2 subunit selectivity profiles, but also in the nature of their impacts on channel function. Major differences exist in the degree of slowing of channel deactivation and shifting of apparent agonist affinity between different classes of PAMs. Here we review the diverse modes of potentiation by the currently known classes of NMDAR PAMs and discuss the potential consequences of different types of potentiation in terms of desirable and undesirable effects on brain function. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Ionotropic glutamate receptors’. © 2016 The Authors

PubMed | CA, Genentech and Proteomics and Lipidomics
Type: | Journal: mAbs | Year: 2016

Bispecific IgG production in single host cells has been a much sought-after goal to support the clinical development of these complex molecules. Current routes to single cell production of bispecific IgG include engineering heavy chains for heterodimerization and redesign of Fab arms for selective pairing of cognate heavy and light chains. Here, we describe novel designs to facilitate selective Fab arm assembly in conjunction with previously described knobs-into-holes mutations for preferential heavy chain heterodimerization. The top Fab designs for selective pairing, namely variants v10 and v11, support near quantitative assembly of bispecific IgG in single cells for multiple different antibody pairs as judged by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Single-cell and in vitro-assembled bispecific IgG have comparable physical, in vitro biological and in vivo pharmacokinetics properties. Efficient single-cell production of bispecific IgG was demonstrated for human IgG

Cohen F.,Genentech | Koehler M.F.T.,Genentech | Bergeron P.,Genentech | Elliott L.O.,DNA Way | And 8 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

A series of IAP antagonists based on thiazole or benzothiazole amide isosteres was designed and synthesized. These compounds were tested for binding to the XIAP-BIR3 and ML-IAP BIR using a fluorescence polarization assay. The most potent of these compounds, 19a and 33b, were found to have K i's of 20-30 nM against ML-IAP and 50-60 nM against XIAP-BIR3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Heald R.,7 9 Spire Green Center | Bowman K.K.,Genentech | Bryan M.C.,DNA Way | Burdick D.,DNA Way | And 27 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Because of their increased activity against activating mutants, first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors have had remarkable success in treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but acquired resistance, through a secondary mutation of the gatekeeper residue, means that clinical responses only last for 8-14 months. Addressing this unmet medical need requires agents that can target both of the most common double mutants: T790M/L858R (TMLR) and T790M/del(746-750) (TMdel). Herein we describe how a noncovalent double mutant selective lead compound was optimized using a strategy focused on the structure-guided increase in potency without added lipophilicity or reduction of three-dimensional character. Following successive rounds of design and synthesis it was discovered that cis-fluoro substitution on 4-hydroxy- and 4-methoxypiperidinyl groups provided synergistic, substantial, and specific potency gain through direct interaction with the enzyme and/or effects on the proximal ligand oxygen atom. Further development of the fluorohydroxypiperidine series resulted in the identification of a pair of diastereomers that showed 50-fold enzyme and cell based selectivity for T790M mutants over wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) in vitro and pathway knock-down in an in vivo xenograft model. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Pereg Y.,DNA Way | Liu B.Y.,DNA Way | O'Rourke K.M.,DNA Way | Sagolla M.,Genentech | And 4 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2010

The dual specificity (Tyr/Thr) phosphatase Cdc25A activates cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) to promote cell-cycle progression and has significant oncogenic potential. Cdc25A protein levels are regulated tightly in normal tissues, but many human cancers overexpress Cdc25A. The underlying mechanism for overexpression has been enigmatic. Here we show that Cdc25A is stabilized by the ubiquitin hydrolase Dub3. Upon binding Cdc25A, Dub3 removes the polyubiquitin modifications that mark Cdc25A for proteasomal degradation. Dub3 knockdown in cells increased Cdc25A ubiquitylation and degradation, resulting in reduced Cdk/Cyclin activity and arrest at G1/S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. In contrast, acute Dub3 overexpression produced a signature response to oncogene induction: cells accumulated in S and G2 because of replication stress, and activated a DNA damage response. Dub3 also transformed NIH-3T3 cells and cooperated with activated H-Ras to promote growth in soft agar. Importantly, we show that Dub3 overexpression is responsible for an abnormally high level of Cdc25A in a subset of human breast cancers. Moreover, Dub3 knockdown significantly retarded the growth of breast tumour xenografts in nude mice. As a major regulator of Cdc25A, Dub3 is an example of a transforming ubiquitin hydrolase that subverts a key component of the cell cycle machinery. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Pham V.C.,DNA Way | Pitti R.,DNA Way | Anania V.G.,DNA Way | Bakalarski C.E.,DNA Way | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2012

Proteolysis is a key regulatory event that controls intracellular and extracellular signaling through irreversible changes in a proteins structure that greatly alters its function. Here we describe a platform for profiling caspase substrates which encompasses two highly complementary proteomic techniques - the first is a differential gel based approach termed Global Analyzer of SILAC-derived Substrates of Proteolysis (GASSP) and the second involves affinity enrichment of peptides containing a C-terminal aspartic acid residue. In combination, these techniques have enabled the profiling of a large cellular pool of apoptotic-mediated proteolytic events across a wide dynamic range. By applying this integrated proteomic work flow to analyze proteolytic events resulting from the induction of intrinsic apoptosis in Jurkat cells via etoposide treatment, 3346 proteins were quantified, of which 360 proteins were identified as etoposide-induced proteolytic substrates, including 160 previously assigned caspase substrates. In addition to global profiling, a targeted approach using BAX HCT116 isogenic cell lines was utilized to dissect pre- and post-mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic cleavage events. By employing apoptotic activation with a pro-apoptotic receptor agonist (PARA), a limited set of apoptotic substrates including known caspase substrates such as BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and novel substrates such as Basic Transcription Factor 3, TRK-fused gene protein (TFG), and p62/Sequestosome were also identified. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Koehler M.F.T.,DNA Way | Bergeron P.,DNA Way | Choo E.F.,Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Lau K.,DNA Way | And 36 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Because of the promise of BCL-2 antagonists in combating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), interest in additional selective antagonists of antiapoptotic proteins has grown. Beginning with a series of selective, potent BCL-XL antagonists containing an undesirable hydrazone functionality, in silico design and X-ray crystallography were utilized to develop alternative scaffolds that retained the selectivity and potency of the starting compounds. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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