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Sanchez-Berrondo J.,Macromolecular Crystallography Group | Mesa P.,Macromolecular Crystallography Group | Ibarra A.,DNA Replication Group | Ibarra A.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

DNA replication is strictly regulated through a sequence of steps that involve many macromolecular protein complexes. One of them is the replicative helicase, which is required for initiation and elongation phases. A MCM helicase found as a prophage in the genome of Bacillus cereus is fused with a primase domain constituting an integrative arrangement of two essential activities for replication. We have isolated this helicase-primase complex (BcMCM) showing that it can bind DNA and displays not only helicase and primase but also DNA polymerase activity. Using single-particle electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction, we obtained structures of BcMCM using ATPγS or ADP in the absence and presence of DNA. The complex depicts the typical hexameric ring shape. The dissection of the unwinding mechanism using site-directed mutagenesis in the Walker A, Walker B, arginine finger and the helicase channels, suggests that the BcMCM complex unwinds DNA following the extrusion model similarly to the E1 helicase from papillomavirus. © 2011 The Author(s).


Guillou E.,DNA Replication Group | Guillou E.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Moleculaire Eucaryote | Ibarra A.,DNA Replication Group | Coulon V.,Montpellier University | And 8 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2010

Genomic DNA is packed in chromatin fibers organized in higher-order structures within the interphase nucleus. One level of organization involves the formation of chromatin loops that may provide a favorable environment to processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. However, little is known about the mechanistic basis of this structuration. Here we demonstrate that cohesin participates in the spatial organization of DNA replication factories in human cells. Cohesin is enriched at replication origins and interacts with prereplication complex proteins. Down-regulation of cohesin slows down S-phase progression by limiting the number of active origins and increasing the length of chromatin loops that correspond with replicon units. These results give a new dimension to the role of cohesin in the architectural organization of interphase chromatin, by showing its participation in DNA replication. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.


PubMed | Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital, University of Lleida, Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Translational Bioinformatics Unit and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare disease with few genetic drivers, and the etiology specific to each known susceptibility mutation remains unknown. Exploiting multilayer genomic data, we focused our interest on the role of aberrant DNA methylation in MTC development.We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling assessing more than 27,000 CpGs in the largest MTC series reported to date, comprising 48 molecularly characterized tumors. mRNA and miRNA expression data were available for 33 and 31 tumors, respectively. Two human MTC cell lines and 101 paraffin-embedded MTCs were used for validation.The most distinctive methylome was observed for RET Multilayer OMIC data analysis uncovered methylation hallmarks in genetically defined MTCs and revealed JAK/Stat signaling effector STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of RET


Aparicio T.,DNA Replication Group | Aparicio T.,Columbia University Medical Center | Megias D.,Confocal Microscopy Unit | Mendez J.,DNA Replication Group
Chromosoma | Year: 2012

In mammalian cells, DNA synthesis takes place at defined nuclear structures termed "replication foci" (RF) that follow the same order of activation in each cell cycle. Intriguingly, immunofluorescence studies have failed to visualize the DNA helicase minichromosome maintenance (MCM) at RF, raising doubts about its physical presence at the sites of DNA synthesis. We have revisited this paradox by pulse-labeling RF during the S phase and analyzing the localization of MCM at labeled DNA in the following cell cycle. Using high-throughput confocal microscopy, we provide direct evidence that MCM proteins concentrate in G1 at the chromosome structures bound to become RF in the S phase. Upon initiation of DNA synthesis, an active "MCM eviction" mechanism contributes to reduce the excess of DNA helicases at RF. Most MCM complexes are released from chromatin, except for a small but detectable fraction that remains at the forks during the S phase, as expected for a replicative helicase. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Lopez-Contreras A.J.,Genomic Instability Group | Ruppen I.,Proteomics Unit | Nieto-Soler M.,Genomic Instability Group | Murga M.,Genomic Instability Group | And 8 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2013

DNA replication is facilitated by multiple factors that concentrate in the vicinity of replication forks. Here, we developed an approach that combines the isolation of proteins on nascent DNA chains with mass spectrometry (iPOND-MS), allowing a comprehensive proteomic characterization of the human replisome and replisome-associated factors. In addition to known replisome components, we provide a broad list of proteins that reside in the vicinity of the replisome, some of which were not previously associated with replication. For instance, our data support a link between DNA replication and the Williams-Beuren syndrome and identify ZNF24 as a replication factor. In addition, we reveal that SUMOylation is widespread for factors that concentrate near replisomes, which contrasts with lower UQylation levels at these sites. This resource provides a panoramic view of the proteins that concentrate in the surroundings of the replisome, which should facilitate future investigations on DNA replication and genome maintenance. © 2013 The Authors.


Trakala M.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Rodriguez-Acebes S.,DNA Replication Group | Maroto M.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Symonds C.E.,Experimental Oncology Group | And 5 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2015

Polyploidization is a natural process that frequently accompanies differentiation; its deregulation is linked to genomic instability and cancer. Despite its relevance, why cells select different polyploidization mechanisms is unknown. Here we report a systematic genetic analysis of endomitosis, a process inwhich megakaryocytes become polyploid by entering mitosis but aborting anaphase. Whereas ablation of the APC/C cofactor Cdc20 results in mitotic arrest and severe thrombocytopenia, lack of the kinases Aurora-B, Cdk1, or Cdk2 does not affect megakaryocyte polyploidization or platelet levels. Ablation of Cdk1 forces a switch to endocycles without mitosis, whereas polyploidization in the absence of Cdk1 and Cdk2 occurs in the presence of aberrant re-replication events. Importantly, ablation of these kinases rescues the defects in Cdc20 null megakaryocytes. These findings suggest that endomitosis can be functionally replaced by alternative polyploidization mechanisms invivo and provide the cellular basis for therapeutic approaches aimed to discriminate mitotic and polyploid cells. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Munoz S.,DNA Replication Group | Mendez J.,DNA Replication Group
Chromosoma | Year: 2016

The genome of proliferating cells must be precisely duplicated in each cell division cycle. Chromosomal replication entails risks such as the possibility of introducing breaks and/or mutations in the genome. Hence, DNA replication requires the coordinated action of multiple proteins and regulatory factors, whose deregulation causes severe developmental diseases and predisposes to cancer. In recent years, the concept of “replicative stress” (RS) has attracted much attention as it impinges directly on genomic stability and offers a promising new avenue to design anticancer therapies. In this review, we summarize recent progress in three areas: (1) endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to RS, (2) molecular mechanisms that mediate the cellular responses to RS, and (3) the large list of diseases that are directly or indirectly linked to RS. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | DNA Replication Group, Hospital Universitario Of Canarias and CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular oncology | Year: 2016

DNA replication control is a key process in maintaining genomic integrity. Monitoring DNA replication initiation is particularly important as it needs to be coordinated with other cellular events and should occur only once per cell cycle. Crucial players in the initiation of DNA replication are the ORC protein complex, marking the origin of replication, and the Cdt1 and Cdc6 proteins, that license these origins to replicate by recruiting the MCM2-7 helicase. To accurately achieve its functions, Cdt1 is tightly regulated. Cdt1 levels are high from metaphase and during G1 and low in S/G2 phases of the cell cycle. This control is achieved, among other processes, by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In an overexpression screen for Cdt1 deubiquitinating enzymes, we isolated USP37, to date the first ubiquitin hydrolase controlling Cdt1. USP37 overexpression stabilizes Cdt1, most likely a phosphorylated form of the protein. In contrast, USP37 knock down destabilizes Cdt1, predominantly during G1 and G1/S phases of the cell cycle. USP37 interacts with Cdt1 and is able to de-ubiquitinate Cdt1 invivo and, USP37 is able to regulate the loading of MCM complexes onto the chromatin. In addition, downregulation of USP37 reduces DNA replication fork speed. Taken together, here we show that the deubiquitinase USP37 plays an important role in the regulation of DNA replication. Whether this is achieved via Cdt1, a central protein in this process, which we have shown to be stabilized by USP37, or via additional factors, remains to be tested.


PubMed | DNA Replication Group
Type: | Journal: Chromosoma | Year: 2016

The genome of proliferating cells must be precisely duplicated in each cell division cycle. Chromosomal replication entails risks such as the possibility of introducing breaks and/or mutations in the genome. Hence, DNA replication requires the coordinated action of multiple proteins and regulatory factors, whose deregulation causes severe developmental diseases and predisposes to cancer. In recent years, the concept of replicative stress (RS) has attracted much attention as it impinges directly on genomic stability and offers a promising new avenue to design anticancer therapies. In this review, we summarize recent progress in three areas: (1) endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to RS, (2) molecular mechanisms that mediate the cellular responses to RS, and (3) the large list of diseases that are directly or indirectly linked to RS.


PubMed | University of Zürich, Transgenic Mice Core Unit, Copenhagen University and DNA Replication Group
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2016

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a transient biological state, where pluripotency is coupled with fast proliferation. ESCs display a constitutively active DNA damage response (DDR), but its molecular determinants have remained elusive. Here we show in cultured ESCs and mouse embryos that H2AX phosphorylation is dependent on Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) and is associated with chromatin loading of the ssDNA-binding proteins RPA and RAD51. Single-molecule analysis of replication intermediates reveals massive ssDNA gap accumulation, reduced fork speed and frequent fork reversal. All these marks of replication stress do not impair the mitotic process and are rapidly lost at differentiation onset. Delaying the G1/S transition in ESCs allows formation of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and suppresses ssDNA accumulation, fork slowing and reversal in the following S-phase. Genetic inactivation of fork slowing and reversal leads to chromosomal breakage in unperturbed ESCs. We propose that rapid cell cycle progression makes ESCs dependent on effective replication-coupled mechanisms to protect genome integrity.

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