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Fairfield, OH, United States

Several protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors predominantly isoflavones, such as genistein, erbstatin, quercetin, daidzein, present in red clover, cabbage and alfalfa, show apoptotic effect against cancer cells. In this study I found that biochanin, a methoxy form of genistein, inhibits IL-8-mediated activation of nuclear transcription factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) more potently than genistein as shown in Jurkat T-cell line. Both biochanin and genistein potently inhibited activity of Lck and Syk, but biochanin specifically inhibited activity of IKK. Biochanin inhibited completely NF-κB activation induced by PMA, LPS, pervanadate (PV), or H 2O 2, but only partially that induced by TNFα. Genistein was unable to inhibit IL-8-induced IKK activity, but it blocked PV-induced IKK activity. Biochanin inhibited activation of NF-κB by TRAF6 completely, but by TRAF2 partially. In silico data suggested that biochanin interacted strongly with serine/threonine kinase than genistein, though both equally interacted with PTK. The data show that both biochanin and genistein are potent inhibitors of PTK, but biochanin is a potent inhibitor of serine/threonine kinase too. Formononetin, having hydroxyl methoxy group is less potent to inhibit IKK than biochanin. Biochanin inhibits NF-κB activation not only by blocking the upstream IKK, but also PTK that phosphorylate tyrosine residues of IκBα. Thus, the double-edged sword effect of inhibition of NF-κB via inhibition of both serine/threonine kinase and PTK by biochanin might show useful therapeutic value against activities of cells that lead to tumorigenesis and inflammation. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of orthophosphate moieties released from the dense granules of activated platelets, is a procoagulant agent. Inositol pyrophosphates, another group of phosphate-rich molecules, consist of mono- and diphosphates substituted on an inositol ring. Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), the most abundant inositol pyrophosphate, is synthesized on phosphorylation of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) by IP6 kinases, of which there are 3 mammalian isoforms (IP6K1/2/3) and a single yeast isoform. Yeast lacking IP6 kinase are devoid of polyP, suggesting a role for IP6 kinase in maintaining polyP levels. We theorized that the molecular link between IP6 kinase and polyP is conserved in mammals and investigated whether polyP-dependent platelet function is altered in IP6K1 knockout (Ip6k1(-/-)) mice. We observe a significant reduction in platelet polyP levels in Ip6k1(-/-) mice, along with slower platelet aggregation and lengthened plasma clotting time. Incorporation of polyP into fibrin clots was reduced in Ip6k1(-/-) mice, thereby altering clot ultrastructure, which was rescued on the addition of exogenous polyP. In vivo assays revealed longer tail bleeding time and resistance to thromboembolism in Ip6k1(-/-) mice. Taken together, our data suggest a novel role for IP6K1 in regulation of mammalian hemostasis via its control of platelet polyP levels. Source


Mukhopadhyay S.,DNA Diagnostics Center | Balaji K.N.,Indian Institute of Science
Tuberculosis | Year: 2011

India already has earned the dubious distinction of being one of the countries with the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The conventional control measures have had little impact on the relentless march of the TB epidemic. Potential solutions to this problem include the development of new drugs and an effective TB vaccine. In this perspective, identification of the mycobacterial components that have important role(s) in the establishment of the infection assumes crucial importance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen and it resides inside the macrophage, which is considered to be the most important component of the immune system. M. tuberculosis possesses two highly polymorphic sets of genes called the PE and PPE families. These unique families of proteins account for about 10% of the mycobacterial genome and have drawn considerable interest from different schools of M. tuberculosis researchers across the globe. In this review, we discuss the importance of these proteins in the regulation of dendritic cell and macrophage immune-effector functions, as well as the relevance of these proteins in the clinical manifestation of TB. This information may be helpful to better understand the immunological importance of PE/PPE proteins and their roles in mycobacterial virulence. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


An important aspect of molecular interactions is the dynamics associated with growth conditions. Intuitively, not all possible interactions take place together all the time in a cell as only a subset of genes is expressed based on environmental conditions. Large scale gene expression data of Escherichia coli was analyzed to understand the dynamics exhibited at expression level. A large compendium of gene expression datasets, which covers about 466 growth conditions, was used for the analysis. Using gene expression data, genes of E. coli were profiled into three classes: Widely expressed, Conditionally expressed and Rarely expressed. Further, dynamics associated with molecular interactions were analysed by studying changing importance of motifs in the composite networks across growth conditions. Our analysis of large scale gene expression data suggests conditional expression of genes which brings about befitting responses for a given growth environment. We observe a range of importance for network motifs across conditions which can be correlated with a specific function. Our study therefore suggests rewiring of molecular interactions driven by gene expression changes depending on the conditional needs. Source


The present invention provides a single tube multiplex assay for distinguishing basmati from non-basmati rice varieties, and thereby identifying the adulteration of basmati rice varieties. The present invention further provides a method for quantifying adulteration in basmati rice varieties. The present invention also provides a kit for performing a muliplex assay for distinguishing basmati from non-basmati rice varieties. The kit may comprise a primer directed to an SSR loci, appropriate reagents for PCR, and optionally, a package insert for conducting the assay.

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