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Ballantyne K.N.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Ralf A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Aboukhalid R.,Mohammed V University | Achakzai N.M.,University of Punjab | And 122 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2014

Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, >99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father-son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RM Y-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database. The value of 13 rapidly-mutating (RM) Y-STRs for differentiating male individuals is investigated in 14,644 related and unrelated men sampled from 111 worldwide populations. Over 99% of the 12,272 unrelated men were completely individualized. Of the 2,378 father-son pairs, 27% were separated. Figure: blue lines represent Y-STR haplotypes shared between population pairs in a subset of 7,784 males from 65 populations. Almost all shared haplotypes defined by conventional 17 Yfiler Y-STRs (above) are resolved with the 13 RM Y-STRs (below). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kim T.W.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kim T.W.,Chungnam National University | Kang Y.K.,Inje University | Park Z.Y.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology | And 14 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2014

SH3RF (SH3-domain-containing RING finger protein) family members, SH3RF1-3, are multidomain scaffold proteins involved in promoting cell survival and apoptosis. In this report, we show that SH3RF2 is an oncogene product that is overexpressed in human cancers and regulates p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) protein stability. Immunohistochemical analysis of 159 colon cancer tissues showed that SH3RF2 expression levels are frequently elevated in cancer tissues and significantly correlate with poor prognostic indicators, including increased invasion, early recurrence and poor survival rates. We also demonstrated that PAK4 protein is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and that SH3RF2 inhibits PAK4 ubiquitination via physical interactionmediated steric hindrance, which results in the upregulation of PAK4 protein. Moreover, ablation of SH3RF2 expression attenuates TRADD (TNFR-associated death domain) recruitment to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 and hinders downstream signals, thereby inhibiting NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappaB) activity and enhancing caspase-8 activity, in the context of TNF-α treatment. Notably, ectopic expression of SH3RF2 effectively prevents apoptosis in cancer cells and enhances cell migration, colony formation and tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that SH3RF2 is an oncogene that may be a definitive regulator of PAK4. Therefore, SH3RF2 may represent an effective therapeutic target for cancer treatment. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Cha Y.S.,Research and Development Center | Choi S.H.,Research and Development Center | Lee J.-H.,Research and Development Center | Shin S.-K.,Research and Development Center | And 4 more authors.
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Short tandem repeat (STR) loci are routinely analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. However, this method has several disadvantages, including long operational time, low throughput, and inaccuracy. As a result of the introduction of matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI), mass spectrometry has become an alternative method for genotyping polymorphic STR loci. Here we established a restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) assay for genotyping STR locus, TPOX, by typeIIS restriction endonuclease cleavage of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicon followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The resulting TPOX genotypes from this assay were in good agreement with the results from direct DNA sequencing and GeneScan assays. Our results showed that the RFMP assay is an accurate and high-throughput method for analyzing long DNA fragments such as STR markers. Further research with multiple STR loci may allow this assay to be used for diverse applications such as forensics, paternity tests, and detection of genetic disorders. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Ham S.-K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim S.-Y.,DNA Analysis Laboratory | Ahn J.-W.,Sungkyunkwan University | Seo B.Y.,DNA Analysis Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Electrophoresis | Year: 2014

DNA degradation is a major obstacle in gaining an accurate profile with standard DNA typing technology. Although alternative genotyping strategies such as mini-STRs and SNPs have proven to be more successful in profiling degraded DNA, these approaches also have limitations. Here, we show that locus enrichment by hybridization of degraded genomic DNA with an STR locus-specific biotinylated oligonucleotide is a powerful approach to overcome problems in STR typing of highly degraded DNA. An experimental investigation of factors affecting the efficiency of this method indicates that the choice of primer and molar ratio of primers to genomic DNA are critical factors in improving enrichment of the STR locus before genotyping with multiplex kits. In addition, we find that indirect capture rather than direct capture with magnetic beads yields better enrichment efficiency for STR locus enrichments. Using these strategies, we demonstrate an improvement in STR typing of DNA from cultured cells damaged by exposure to sunlight or UV. We suggest that this approach could be applied to highly degraded forensic samples alone or in combination with mini-STRs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | DNA Analysis Laboratory and Sungkyunkwan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Electrophoresis | Year: 2016

DNA profiling of short tandem repeats (STR) has been successfully used for the identification of individuals in forensic samples, accidents and natural disasters. However, STR profiling of DNA isolated from old crime scenes and damaged biological samples is difficult due to DNA degradation and fragmentation. Here, we show that pre-amplification of STR loci using biotinylated primers for the STR loci is an efficient strategy to obtain STR profiling results from fragmented forensic samples. Analysis of STR loci with longer amplicon sizes is generally hampered, since these relatively long loci are vulnerable to DNA fragmentation. This problem was overcome by using reduced or increased primer concentrations for loci with shorter or longer amplicon sizes, respectively, in our pre-amplification strategy. In addition, pre-amplification of STR loci into two groups of short or long amplicon size increases the efficiency of STR profiling from highly fragmented forensic DNA samples. Therefore, differential pre-amplification of STR loci is an effective way to obtain DNA profiling results from fragmented forensic samples.


Kim S.W.,Korea University | Heo J.H.,Korea University | Kim C.H.,Korea University | Yoo D.C.,Korea University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2010

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful molecular biological tool in the field of toxicity testing and diagnostics. The use of PCR for large-scale genetic testing requires an effective method of sample processing. Unfortunately, isolation of PCR-quality DNA is time-consuming. PCR performed directly on whole blood is preferred because of time efficiency, cost of the procedure, and possible automation for large-scale toxicity evaluation and diagnosis. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene contains two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located at codons 112 and 158, producing three APOE protein isoforms known to be associated with the risks of developing cardiovascular disease and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, an attempt was made to use the AnyDirect solution for APOE genotyping by PCR using whole blood directly without DNA purification. Results for two PCR methods, (1) conventional PCR using purified DNA and conventional buffer and (2) direct PCR using whole blood and AnyDirect solution, were compared in four different PCR-based APOE genotyping methods including PCR restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), allele-specific PCR, SNaPshot mini-sequencing, and multiplex tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (T-ARMS) PCR. There was complete concordance in the APOE genotypes between conventional PCR and direct PCR, in all four different PCR-based APOE genotyping methods. Data demonstrated that the four different PCR-based APOE genotyping methods are able to determine the APOE genotypes successfully using whole blood directly with the use of AnyDirect solution. The direct multiplex T-ARMS PCR using whole blood may be the most rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for detecting APOE genotypes among four different APOE genotyping methods. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Seo S.B.,Seoul National University | Lee H.Y.,Seoul National University | Zhang A.H.,Seoul National University | Kim H.Y.,DNA Analysis Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2012

Correct DNA quantification is an essential part to obtain reliable STR typing results. Forensic DNA analysts often use commercial kits for DNA quantification; among them, real-time-based DNA quantification kits are most frequently used. Incorrect DNA quantification due to the presence of PCR inhibitors may affect experiment results. In this study, we examined the alteration degree of DNA quantification results estimated in DNA samples containing a PCR inhibitor by using a Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit. For experiments, we prepared approximately 0.25 ng/μl DNA samples containing various concentrations of humic acid (HA). The quantification results were 0.194-0.303 ng/μl at 0-1.6 ng/μl HA (final concentration in the Quantifiler reaction) and 0.003- 0.168 ng/μl at 2.4-4.0 ng/μl HA. Most DNA quantity was undetermined when HA concentration was higher than 4.8 ng/μl HA. The CT values of an internal PCR control (IPC) were 28.0-31.0, 36.5-37.1, and undetermined at 0- 1.6, 2.4, and 3.2 ng/μl HA. These results indicate that underestimated DNA quantification results may be obtained in the DNA sample with high CT values of IPC. Thus, researchers should carefully interpret the DNA quantification results. We additionally examined the effects of HA on the STR amplification by using an Identifiler® kit and a MiniFiler kit. Based on the results of this study, it is thought that a better understanding of various effects of HA would help researchers recognize and manipulate samples containing HA. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Sim J.E.,DNA Analysis Laboratory | Park S.J.,DNA Analysis Laboratory | Lee H.C.,DNA Analysis Laboratory | Kim S.-Y.,DNA Analysis Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

Since the Korean criminal DNA database was launched in 2010, we have focused on establishing an automated DNA database profiling system that analyzes short tandem repeat loci in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. We established a DNA database profiling system without DNA purification using a direct PCR buffer system. The quality of direct PCR procedures was compared with that of conventional PCR system under their respective optimized conditions. The results revealed not only perfect concordance but also an excellent PCR success rate, good electropherogram quality, and an optimal intra/inter-loci peak height ratio. In particular, the proportion of DNA extraction required due to direct PCR failure could be minimized to <3%. In conclusion, the newly developed direct PCR system can be adopted for automated DNA database profiling systems to replace or supplement conventional PCR system in a time- and cost-saving manner. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

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