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Basel, Switzerland

Bao W.,Glaxosmithkline | Holt L.J.,Biopharm Research | Prince R.D.,Biopharm Research | Jones G.X.,Biopharm Research | And 8 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2013

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its mimetics reduce infarct size in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the short serum half-life of GLP-1 and its mimetics may limit their therapeutic use in acute myocardial ischemia. Domain antibodies to serum albumin (AlbudAbs) have been developed to extend the serum half-life of short lived therapeutic proteins, peptides and small molecules. In this study, we compared the effect of a long acting GLP-1 agonist, DPP-IV resistant GLP-1 (7-36, A8G) fused to an AlbudAb (GAlbudAb), with the effect of the GLP-1 mimetic, exendin-4 (short half-life GLP-1 agonist) on infarct size following acute myocardial I/R injury.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-week-old) were treated with vehicle, GAlbudAb or exendin-4. Myocardial ischemia was induced 2 h following the final dose for GAlbudAb and 30 min post the final dose for exendin-4. In a subgroup of animals, the final dose of exendin-4 was administered (1 μg/kg, SC, bid for 2 days) 6 h prior to myocardial ischemia when plasma exendin-4 was at its minimum concentration (Cmin). Myocardial infarct size, area at risk and cardiac function were determined 24 h after myocardial I/R injury.Results: GAlbudAb and exendin-4 significantly reduced myocardial infarct size by 28% and 23% respectively, compared to vehicle (both p < 0.01 vs. vehicle) after I/R injury. Moreover, both GAlbudAb and exendin-4 markedly improved post-ischemic cardiac contractile function. Body weight loss and reduced food intake consistent with the activation of GLP-1 receptors was observed in all treatment groups. However, exendin-4 failed to reduce infarct size when administered 6 h prior to myocardial ischemia, suggesting continuous activation of the GLP-1 receptors is needed for cardioprotection.Conclusions: Cardioprotection provided by GAlbudAb, a long acting GLP-1 mimetic, following myocardial I/R injury was comparable in magnitude, but more sustained in duration than that produced by short-acting exendin-4. Very low plasma concentrations of exendin-4 failed to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury, suggesting that sustained GLP-1 receptor activation plays an important role in providing cardioprotection in the setting of acute myocardial I/R injury. Long-acting GLP-1 agonists such as GAlbudAb may warrant additional evaluation as novel therapeutic agents to reduce myocardial I/R injury during acute coronary syndrome. © 2013 Bao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Coen M.,Imperial College London | Goldfain-Blanc F.,Toxicology | Rolland-Valognes G.,Institute Of Recherches Servier | Walther B.,DMPK | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2012

Galactosamine (galN) is widely used as an in vivo model of acute liver injury. We have applied an integrative approach, combining histopathology, clinical chemistry, cytokine analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic metabolic profiling of biofluids and tissues, to study variability in response to galactosamine following successive dosing. On re-challenge with galN, primary non-responders displayed galN-induced hepatotoxicity (induced response), whereas primary responders exhibited a less marked response (adaptive response). A systems-level metabonomic approach enabled simultaneous characterization of the xenobiotic and endogenous metabolic perturbations associated with the different response phenotypes. Elevated serum cytokines were identified and correlated with hepatic metabolic profiles to further investigate the inflammatory response to galN. The presence of urinary N-acetylglucosamine (glcNAc) correlated with toxicological outcome and reflected the dynamic shift from a resistant to a sensitive phenotype (induced response). In addition, the urinary level of glcNAc and hepatic level of UDP-N-acetylhexosamines reflected an adaptive response to galN. The unique observation of galN-pyrazines and altered gut microbial metabolites in fecal profiles of non-responders suggested that gut microfloral metabolism was associated with toxic outcome. Pharmacometabonomic modeling of predose urinary and fecal NMR spectroscopic profiles revealed a diverse panel of metabolites that classified the dynamic shift between a resistant and sensitive phenotype. This integrative pharmacometabonomic approach has been demonstrated for a model toxin; however, it is equally applicable to xenobiotic interventions that are associated with wide variation in efficacy or toxicity and, in particular, for prediction of susceptibility to toxicity. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Lusher S.J.,DMPK | Raaijmakers H.C.A.,DMPK | Vu-Pham D.,DMPK | Dechering K.,DMPK | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

The progesterone receptor is able to bind to a large number and variety of ligands that elicit a broad range of transcriptional responses ranging from full agonism to full antagonism and numerous mixed profiles inbetween. We describe here two new progesterone receptor ligand binding domain x-ray structures bound to compounds from a structurally related but functionally divergent series, which show different binding modes corresponding to their agonistic or antagonistic nature. In addition, we present a third progesterone receptor ligand binding domain dimer bound to an agonist in monomer A and an antagonist in monomer B, which display binding modes in agreement with the earlier observation that agonists and antagonists from this series adopt different binding modes. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Iddon L.,University of Liverpool | Richards S.E.,Imperial College London | Johnson C.H.,Imperial College London | Harding J.R.,DMPK | And 6 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2011

We report the synthesis of the 1-β-O-acyl glucoside conjugates of phenylacetic acid (PAA), R- and S-α-methyl-PAA and α,α′- dimethyl-PAA, and measurement of their transacylation and hydrolysis reactivity by NMR methods. These are analogues of acyl glucuronides, the transacylation kinetics of which could be important in adverse drug effects. One aim of this work was to investigate whether, as previously postulated, the free carboxylate group of the acyl glucuronides plays a part in the mechanism of the internal acyl migration. In addition, such acyl glucosides are known to be endogenous biochemicals in their own right and investigation of their acyl migration propensities is novel. Our previously described selective acylation procedure has proved highly successful for 1-β-O-acyl glucuronide synthesis and when subsequently applied to 6-O-trityl glucose, it gave good yields and excellent anomeric selectivity. Mild acidolysis of the O-trityl intermediates gave the desired acyl glucosides in excellent yield with essentially complete β-selectivity. Measurement of the acyl glucoside transacylation kinetics by 1H NMR spectroscopy, based simply on the disappearance of the 1-β-isomer in aqueous buffer at pH 7.4, showed marked differences depending on the degree of methyl substitution. Further kinetic modelling of the isomerisation and hydrolysis reactions of the acyl glucosides showed considerable differences in kinetics for the various isomeric reactions. Reactions involving the -CH2OH group, presumably via a 6-membered ring ortho-ester intermediate, are facile and the α-glucoside anomers are significantly more reactive than their β-counterparts. By comparison with degradation rates for the corresponding acyl glucuronides, it can be inferred that substitution of the carboxylate by -CH2OH in the acyl glucosides has a significant effect on acyl migration for those compounds, especially for rapidly transacylating molecules, and that thus the charged glucuronide carboxylate is a factor in the kinetics. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Beconi M.G.,DMPK | Howland D.,Vivo Inc | Park L.,CHDI Foundation Inc. | Lyons K.,CHDI Foundation Inc. | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Currents | Year: 2012

To evaluate the potential of memantine as a therapeutic agent for Huntington's disease (HD) we have undertaken a series of in vitro, ex vivo and whole animal studies to characterize its pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in rats and mice. Results from these studies will enable determination of memantine exposures needed to engage the related functional PD marker and help predict the dose regimen for clinical trials to test its proposed mechanism of action; the selective blockade of extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, NMDA receptors. The studies reported here describe the PK of memantine in rats and mice at low (1 mg/kg) and high (10 mg/kg) doses. Our studies indicate that the clearance mechanisms of memantine in rats and mice are different from those in human, and that clearance needs to be taken into account when extrapolating to the human. In rats only, there is a significant metabolic contribution to memantine clearance at lower dose levels. While memantine is primarily cleared renally in all three species, the proportion of total systemic clearance above the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is much higher in rats and mice (~13, 4.5, and 1.4 times higher than GFR in rats, mice, and humans, respectively), suggesting that the contribution of active transport to memantine elimination in rats and mice is more significant than in the human. In rats and mice, memantine had a short half-life (100). In the human, the half-life of memantine was reported to be very long (60-80 h) with a Cmax/Cmin ratio at steady state concentrations of ~1.5. A small change in the clearance of memantine - for example due to renal impairment or competition for the elimination pathway with a co-administered drug - will likely affect exposure and, therefore, the selectivity of memantine on NMDA receptors. The PK differences observed between these species demonstrate that the PK in mice and rats cannot be directly extrapolated to the human. Further, the relationship between the plasma concentration (and therefore dose) needed to elicit a mechanism-related in vivo functional effect (PD readout) while maintaining the selectivity of the extrasynaptic blockade of the NMDA receptors needs to be established before clinical trials can be appropriately planned. Source

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