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Prakash R.,DM Wayanad Institute of Medical science | Prashanth H.V.,Sri Siddhartha Medical College | Ragunatha S.,Sri Siddhartha Medical College | Kapoor M.,Sri Siddhartha Medical College | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2016

Background: The diagnosis of superficial mycosis such as dermatophytosis is often done clinically. However, in difficult cases, a rapid test with high sensitivity and specificity helps in the immediate confirmation and administration of treatment. Methods: The efficacy, rapidity of detection, and cost-effectiveness of KOH preparation, calcofluor white (CW) stain, and Chicago sky blue (CSB) stain in the identification of fungal elements were assessed in patients with dermatophytoses attending the dermatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital. All three tests were performed on each sample collected from 73 patients according to standard procedure. The slides were examined after 5 and 30 minutes in × 10 and × 40 magnifications. The sensitivity and specificity of CW and CSB at 5 and 30 minutes were calculated using KOH preparation as the standard test. Results: CSB stain showed highest positivity (94.5%) within 5 minutes when compared to KOH (75.3%) and CW (83.5%). After 30 minutes, positivity increased in KOH (84.9%) and CW stains (89%), but it remained the same in CSB stain. Both CW and CSB stains when compared to 10% KOH are equally sensitive (100%), but CW was more specific (72.7%), particularly at 30 minutes. When cost of performing tests on 100 specimens is considered, KOH, CW, and CSB stains cost Rs 5, 100, and 15, respectively. Conclusion: CSB stain is a better stain for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytoses because of ease of performance, rapidity of detection, better appreciation of morphology of fungal elements, and cost effectiveness. © 2016 International Society of Dermatology. Source


Balasubrahmanya Prasad C.V.,DM Wayanad Institute of Medical science | Kodliwadmath M.V.,Navodaya Medical College | Kodliwadmath G.B.,Civil Hospital
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2014

Introduction: Leprosy is a disease of great antiquity and it still continues to be a public health problem in few countries including India.Aim: Present study was set out to evaluate antioxidant vitamin levels in paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy and in healthy control group for comparison.Materials and Methods: Plasma Vitamin A, E and C levels were estimated in leprosy groups and control group.Results: Plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins A, E and C were significantly reduced in PB leprosy and MB leprosy as compared to controls. The level was significantly low in MB leprosy as compared to PB leprosy.Conclusion: The low plasma antioxidant vitamin status may be in relation to over-consumption of these antioxidant nutrients as a consequence of increased exposure to oxidative attacks and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation may be useful against the persisting oxidative stress in leprosy. Source


Prasad C.V.B.,DM Wayanad Institute of Medical science | Kodliwadmath S.M.,Navodaya Medical College | Kodliwadmath M.V.,Navodaya Medical College
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2013

Background & objectives: Present study was set out to evaluate Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels in pregnant women with and without toxemia and in non-pregnant women for comparison. Cord blood GGT level was also estimated in toxemic pregnant. Methods: GGT activity was estimated in non-pregnant and pregnant women with and without toxemia. Results: There was no significant difference in serum GGT activity between non-pregnant (4.36 ± 1.04 U/L) and normal pregnant women (4.47 ± 0.93 U/L). The activity was significantly high in pregnant women suffering from toxemia of pregnancy as compared to that of normal pregnancy. There was almost three fold increase in the GGT activity in cord blood of toxemic women as compared to their serum level. Interpretation & conclusion: Findings of the present study indicate that GGT levels are significantly elevated in maternal serum as well as cord blood in women suffering from toxemia of pregnancy. Estimation of maternal and umbilical cord blood GGT may have diagnostic and/or predictive value in feto-maternal prognosis. Source


Gupta P.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Desai P.B.,DM Wayanad Institute of Medical science | Kulkarni S.,KLE University
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2014

Introduction: Sudden ceased of women's menstural cycle for a year, is a post menopause period. In this period, ovaries stop synthesizing estrogen hormone and women undergo two distinct phases of bone loss: 1. Rapid, transient phase, begins at menopause, 2. slow, subsequent phase, continues indefinitely and indirectly leads to bone loss. Estrogen has dual effect - primary on bone metabolism and secondary on Lipid profile (body weight). Alteration in Lipid profile leads to various diseases.Aim: Therefore this study was conducted to assess the Lipid profile and bone markers in pre and post menopausal women.Materials and Methods: 30 post and 30 pre menopausal healthy women, as cases and control respectively, were enrolled in this study. Lipid profile and bone markers were analysed in both groups by standard biochemical methods.Results: As compared to pre menopausal, post menopausal women showed increased levels of serum Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides (TAG), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Inorganic Phosphorus (IP) and decrease level of High Density Lipoproteins - Cholesterol (HDL-C) which were statistically significant.Conclusion: Increased levels of ALP and IP in post menopausal women shows susceptibility towards various bone diseases whereas increased levels of Total Cholesterol, TAG and decreased level of HDL- C represent dyslipidemia, key factor for various metabolic disease. Source


Shaikh S.B.,Institute of Medical Science and Research | Haji I.M.,St Johns Medical College | Doddamani P.,DM Wayanad Institute of Medical science | Rahman M.,Institute of Medical Science and Research
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Background: Type1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β cells and is characterized by the presence of insulitis and β-cell autoantibodies. Up to one third of patients develop an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Presence of other autoimmune disorders in patients with T1DM has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Hypoglycemia resulting from concurrent hypothyroidism or adrenal crisis can be dangerous; starting replacement therapy for hypothyroidism may result in adrenal crisis if background hypocortisolism is not recognized. Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease. Aims: The objectives of this study were to assess the concurrence of various autoimmune disorders in patients with T1DM, to review the concept and detect the overt forms of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD), Addison's disease, Vitamin B 12, vitiligo in T1DM and to find their correlation according to age and sex of the patients. Methods: It is a retrospective study where medical records between January 2007-June 2010 of all the patients diagnosed with T1DM, followed up at Department of Endocrinology were reviewed to find out the presence of Addison's disease, Autoimmune thyroidal disease (AITD), vitiligo, Vitamin B12 deficiency and Primary Gonadal Failure, which were diagnosed clinically with available investigational procedures. Results: A total of 100 cases of T1DM were evaluated during the present study. The age group of patients ranged from 8 to 40 years, with the average being 21.56 years. 64% of the patients were males and the rest were females. 29 % of T1DM subjects had Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) (Hashimoto's or Graves'disease), 5% were diagnosed with Vitamin B12 deficiency, 4% had Addison's disease (AD), and 6% showed Vitiligo. 28 % had family history of autoimmune endocrinopathy. Conclusion: The commonest autoimmune disorder associated with T1DM found in our study was AITD. Because genetic/ autoantibodies testing is not a feasible option, it is important to screen them with best available laboratory facilities and clinical assessment in view of high prevalence of associated autoimmune conditions. Source

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