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Long D.,Lanzhou University | Wu X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Lenk I.,DLF Trifolium Ltd | And 2 more authors.
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2011

A variety of selection systems have been developed for transformation of forage crops. To compare the most frequently used systems, we tested three selectable marker genes for their selection efficiency under four selection procedures for the production of transgenic tall fescue. Embryogenic calluses initiated from mature embryos were bombarded with three constructs containing either the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene, the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene or the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene. Transformation efficiency was strongly influenced by the selectable marker gene, selection procedure and genotype. The highest transformation efficiency was observed using the bar gene in combination with bialaphos. Average transformation efficiencies with bialaphos, phosphinothricin (glufosinate), hygromycin and paromomycin selection across the two callus lines used in the experiments were 9.4%, 4.4%, 5.2% and 1.6%, respectively. Southern blot analysis revealed the independent nature of the tested transgenic plants and a complex transgene integration pattern with multiple insertions. © 2011 The Society for In Vitro Biology. Source

Asp T.,University of Aarhus | Byrne S.,University of Aarhus | Gundlach H.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Bruggmann R.,University of Bern | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2011

Vernalization, a period of low temperature to induce transition from vegetative to reproductive state, is an important environmental stimulus for many cool season grasses. A key gene in the vernalization pathway in grasses is the VRN1 gene. The objective of this study was to identify causative polymorphism(s) at the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) for variation in vernalization requirement. Two allelic Bacterial Artificial Chromosome clones of the VRN1 locus from the two genotypes Veyo and Falster with contrasting vernalization requirements were identified, sequenced, and characterized. Analysis of the allelic sequences identified an 8.6-kb deletion in the first intron of the VRN1 gene in the Veyo genotype which has low vernalization requirement. This deletion was in a divergent recurrent selection experiment confirmed to be associated with genotypes with low vernalization requirement. The region surrounding the VRN1 locus in perennial ryegrass showed microcolinearity to the corresponding region on chromosome 3 in Oryza sativa with conserved gene order and orientation, while the micro-colinearity to the corresponding region in Triticum monococcum was less conserved. Our study indicates that the first intron of the VRN1 gene, and in particular the identified 8.6 kb region, is an important regulatory region for vernalization response in perennial ryegrass. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

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